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Your Teen

What Is the Most Common and Deadly Cancer Found in Teens?

2:00

Do you know the most common and deadly cancer found in teens and young adults? You may be as surprised as I was when I read that a new study shows it is brain cancer.  It’s also not a particular type of brain cancer, but can vary widely as people age.

"For these individuals -- who are finishing school, pursuing their careers and starting and raising young families -- a brain tumor diagnosis is especially cruel and disruptive," said Elizabeth Wilson, president and CEO of the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA).

"This report enables us for the first time to zero in on the types of tumors occurring at key [age] intervals over a 25-year time span, to help guide critical research investments and strategies for living with a brain tumor that reflect the patient's unique needs," Wilson said in an association news release.

Researchers look at data from 51 separate cancer registries, representing 99.9 percent of the U.S. population in the 15 to 39 year-old-age group.

While 2 types of tumors were the most frequently found in this age group, brain and central nervous system tumors, the report also noted that other types of cancer became more prevalent as people got older.

"What's interesting is the wide variability in the types of brain tumors diagnosed within this age group, which paints a much different picture than what we see in [older] adults or in pediatric patients," said report senior author Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, an associate professor at Case Western's Comprehensive Cancer Center in Cleveland.

"For example, the most common tumor types observed in adults are meningiomas and glioblastomas, but there is much more diversity in the common tumor types observed in the adolescent and young adult population," Barnholtz-Sloan said in the news release.

"You also clearly see a transition from predominantly nonmalignant and low-grade tumors to predominantly high-grade tumors with increasing age," she added.

Nearly 700,000 people in the United States have brain and central nervous system tumors. And more than 10,600 such tumors are diagnosed in teens and young adults each year, with 434 dying of their disease annually, according to the ABTA.

The most common treatment for brain cancer continues to be surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, new research is looking into the development of tailored therapeutics involving a combination of targeted agents that use different molecules to reduce gene activity and suppress uncontrolled growth by killing or reducing the production of tumor cells based on their genetic character. Experimental treatment options may include new drugs, gene-therapy and biologic modulators that enhance the body’s overall immune system to recognize and fight cancer cells.

"There are clearly unique characteristics of the 15-39 age group that we need to more comprehensively understand, and the information in the ABTA report starts that important dialogue," Barnholtz-Sloan said.

The ABTA-funded report was recently published in journal Neuro-Oncology.

Story source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/cancer-information-5/brain-cancer-news-93/brain-cancers-both-common-and-deadly-among-young-adults-report-shows-708339.html

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brainandspinaltumors/brainandspinaltumors.htm

Your Teen

Teenage Heavy Pot Use and Memory Loss

2:00

Teens who are heavy users of marijuana may be setting themselves up for memory loss and physical changes in the brain suggests a new study.

Researchers found that young adults who'd smoked pot heavily as teens performed worse on memory tests than their peers who'd never used the drug regularly. And on brain scans, they tended to show differences in the shape of the hippocampus -the part of the brain that is involved with forming, organizing and storing memory. 

The findings did not prove that heavy marijuana use caused the changes in the brain or memory dysfunction, but suggests that there could be a connection. The study was small and participants were only assessed once.

Matthew Smith, lead researcher and an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, in Chicago, pointed out that other research has found a link between teenagers' heavy marijuana use and lingering memory problems, as well as a loss in IQ points. Similarly, brain-imaging studies have found that habitual pot smokers show differences in the volume and shape of the hippocampus, versus non-users.

The young adults had stopped smoking pot on an average of two years before participating in this study. Smith said that the brain changes and memory loss suggests that the effects may indicate long-term damage.

The current findings are based on 10 young adults who smoked pot heavily as teens -- usually daily, starting at 16 or 17, for an average of three years. Smith's team compared them with 44 young adults the same age, and from similar backgrounds, with no history of drug abuse.

Overall, the former marijuana users performed worse on a test where they had to listen to a series of stories, then remember as much information as possible a half-hour later.

Smith said he thinks the gap would be relevant in real life. "It would be similar to having a conversation, and then forgetting details 30 minutes later," he said.

The researchers also found a correlation between having an "oddly shaped" hippocampus and poorer memory performance, Smith said, though he added that does not prove the structural difference caused the memory issues.

Because teenager’s brain are still developing, Smith suggests that if young people want to smoke marijuana it might be best to wait until they are in their 20s before they start.

"The overall body of evidence is pretty clear that when teenagers use marijuana [regularly], their brains tend to look different and there tend to be cognitive differences," he said.

Not everyone agrees that this study points out a link between teenage heavy marijuana use with cognitive difficulties or hippocampus changes.

Paul Armentano, deputy director of NORML, a non-profit that advocates for legal marijuana use, says that because participants in the study were assessed only once, there’s no way to know whether the pot use came before any memory issues.

He also suggests other factors may be responsible for the hippocampus changes such as heavy drinking.

Armentano believes concerns about teenagers' developing brains presents a good argument for legalizing marijuana. "The obvious public-policy response," he said, "is to regulate the substance in a manner that better restricts young people's access to it, and provides them with evidence-based information in regard to its potential risks."

With the legalization of marijuana use in several states and other states looking at the possibility of legalization, more studies of the long-term effects are beginning to flow in.

Legalization certainly isn’t the beginning of pot use among teens. However, the perception of marijuana use as harmful is changing rather quickly among teens and even pre-teens.

According to www.drugabuse.gov, marijuana use remained stable in 2014, even though the percentage of youth perceiving the drug as harmful went down. Past-month use of marijuana remained steady among 8th graders at 6.5 percent, among 10th graders at 16.6 percent, and among 12th graders at 21.2 percent. Close to 6 percent of 12th graders report daily use of marijuana (similar to 2013), and 81 percent of them said the drug is easy to get.

Although marijuana use has remained relatively stable over the past few years, there continues to be a shifting of teens’ attitudes about its perceived risks. The majority of high school seniors do not think occasional marijuana smoking is harmful, with only 36.1 percent saying that regular use puts the user at great risk, compared to 39.5 percent in 2013 and 52.4 percent in 2009. However, 56.7 percent of seniors say they disapprove of adults who smoke it occasionally, and 73.4 percent say they disapprove of adults smoking marijuana regularly.

Waiting till a child has reached their pre-teen or teenage years to start discussing drug use isn’t going to be near as effective as beginning that conversation much earlier. Drugs have long held a fascination for kids whether you’re talking about marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol or any of the other type of inhalant or pills. That’s not news to parents. The difference is that drugs are now more easily available and new temptations are widespread.  

No matter what the research eventually reveals, drug use should be a topic that parents start discussing with their children when they are young- using age-appropriate terminology- along with the sex, personal responsibility and ethics discussions. These conversations can provide information that will help them navigate peer and societal temptations in a more mature and educated way.

Sources: Amy Norton, http://teens.webmd.com/news/20150312/teens-heavy-pot-smoking-tied-to-memory-problems

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/high-school-youth-trends

Your Teen

Young Male Athletes, Parental Pressure and Doping

1:45

When 129 young male athletes, whose average age was 17, were asked what would make them consider “doping” as a way to boost their athletic ability – the majority said parental pressure.

A new study from the University of Kent in England asked the young male athletes about their attitudes on "doping" -- the use of prohibited drugs, such as steroids, hormones or stimulants, to increase athletic competence.

These substances, sometimes called performance-enhancing drugs, can potentially alter the human body and biological functions. However, they can be extremely harmful to a person's health, experts warn.

The study group was also asked about four different aspects of perfectionism. The areas were: parental pressure; self-striving for perfection; concerns about making mistakes; and pressure from coaches.

Only parental pressure was linked to positive feelings about doping among the athletes, the study authors found. Although the study was small, it did point out how important demanding expectations from parents can be to kids. 

Lead author of the study, Daniel Madigan, a Ph.D. student in the university's School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, said the findings suggest that parents need to recognize the consequences of putting too much pressure on young athletes in the family.

"The problem of pressure from parents watching their children play sports is widely known, with referees and sporting bodies highlighting the difficulties and taking steps to prevent it," Madigan said in a university news release.

"With the rise of so-called 'tiger' parenting-- where strict and demanding parents push their children to high levels of achievement -- this study reveals the price young athletes may choose to pay to meet their parents' expectations and dreams," Madigan added.

The researchers only focused on young men for this study but plan to investigate if the same result will occur with young female athletes, and if there are differences between athletes in team versus individual sports.

The study findings are scheduled for publication in the April print issue of the Journal of Sports Sciences.

Story source: Robert Preidt, http://teens.webmd.com/news/20160229/young-athletes-pressured-by-parents-may-resort-to-doping

 

Your Teen

Teens Getting Less and Less Sleep

2:00

Today’s American teens are getting a whole lot less sleep than they did in the 90s according to a new study. Too little sleep makes focusing difficult and depletes one’s energy. As a result, school performance often suffers and unhealthy and/or unwise decisions are much easier to make.

Just 63 percent of 15-year-olds reported getting seven or more hours of sleep a night in 2012. That number is down from 72 percent in 1991, according to the study.

Between the ages of 13 and 18, teens getting 7 hours or more of sleep a night plummets. At 13, roughly two-thirds of teens get at least seven hours of sleep a night; by 18 that percentage drops to about one-third.

"After age 16, the majority are not meeting the recommended guidelines," said study author Katherine Keyes, an assistant professor of epidemiology at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City.

Why is it so important that teens get enough sleep? A lack of sleep can impact just about every part of their life. Hormones are escalating, social interactions are fragile, school demands are heightened, self-image is developing and many begin testing boundaries with parents, teachers and each other. It can be a rugged time for teens and those around them.

For the study, researchers from Columbia University looked at sleep data from a national survey of more than 270,000 teens from 1991 to 2012. Each year, teens reported how often they got seven or more hours of sleep, as well as how often they got less sleep than they need.

The most recent recommendation from the National Sleep Foundation says teens aged 14 to 17 need eight to 10 hours a night and people aged 18 to 25 need seven to nine hours.

The largest declines in those getting enough sleep occurred between 1991 through 2000; then the problem plateaued, Keyes said.

Researchers also found that girls were less likely to get an adequate amount of sleep compared to boys.

So what’s causing the decline? There a several theories about what may be contributing to this downward slide in teen sleep.

Keyes did not have access to information about the teens' use of electronic media, a factor often blamed for lack of sleep as teens text, check social media, play video games and work on laptops late into the night. However, that might be a factor, she said.

"On an individual level, excessive use of technology may impair an adolescent's ability to sleep," Keyes said.

Caffeine may also be a culprit. It’s estimated that about 30 percent of adolescents report consuming energy drinks which are packed with caffeine. Many teens drink specialty coffees as well.

Another issue may be early school start times. Some sleep disorder experts believe that starting school – even an hour later- could help teens get more valuable sleep. Starting school, for instance at 8:30 a.m., is an approach favored by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Other studies have noted that a lack of sleep is linked with many other teen health problems including obesity, car accidents, depression and a drop in school performance.

When kids are younger, parents are more likely to set limits on bedtime behavior as well as bedtimes. Once kids reach their teens, some of those limits may get a little lax, but this is the time when they are needed most.

Parents still have the authority to set a bedtime and require that computers, tablets and phones are off at least an hour before bedtime. Many kids (and adults) are addicted to their smartphones, so it’s a tough rule to set; it takes a strong commitment and a good example for it to work.

Lack of sleep is hard on everyone, but teens really need the extra help to stay healthy and function well in school. It has such a big impact not only on their present but for their future as well.

Source: Kathleen Doheny, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20150216/us-teens-getting-less-sleep-than-ever

Daily Dose

Dangers of Texting While Driving

I was watching the news the other evening (not the same as morning news surfing while on the treadmill) and there was a news segment on texting while driving.

We have discussed this issue on the radio show several times. The data surrounding accidents occurring secondarily to texting while driving becomes more alarming each day. In this segment they showed a public service announcement (PSA) that had been shown in Great Britain, which was produced to show the dangers of texting while driving. The introduction talked about risks of accidents while texting while also discussing how texting is as dangerous, if not more, than drinking and driving. They then showed a clip, which was produced to show teens in a car talking together, while at the same time texting other friends. The simulated PSA then goes on to show the driver being distracted as she answers a text and the ensuing accident involving multiple vehicles. This piece then shows the girls in the car (remember it is a re-enactment, also in slow motion at times) as they are hitting the other cars, being thrown about inside their car. It is so difficult to watch as the girls are catapulted inside the car, into one another, as well as into the windshield and dashboard, and there is blood everywhere. As the piece closes, all of the cars come to a stop and the girls are shown. They slowly realize that they have been in an accident and one of their friends is dead. The entire segment probably lasted no more than a minute, but it may have been one of the most difficult 60 seconds to watch, as it is many parents’ nightmare! This PSA is not being shown in the U.S. and some parents may think it is too graphic to show to their children. In my opinion, any teen that has a phone and a driver’s permit/license should be required to watch this, and younger teens may need to watch this too.  There have been fatal accidents involving trains, and buses all secondary to the driver texting while on the job. The statistics continue to show an alarming number of accidents due to driver inattention due to texting. My son has a friend whose precious sister was recently killed in an accident that is thought to be due to the fact that she was texting while driving. There were no drugs, or alcohol and she had on her seat belt. It occurred on a beautiful morning without rain or fog but she crossed the median while driving. The rest of the story is tragic. We have all become addicted to our phones, and Blackberry’s. There is NOTHING so important that it cannot wait until we have stopped the car. Not a business meeting, call from home or teen party or rendezvous that needs to be instantly answered. The only job we need to have while driving is to focus on driving. I am continually reminding myself of this, as I feel my Blackberry vibrate while I drive. I have to resist the urge to look. Maybe it is better to just turn it off while in the car. We all managed to function without instant communication for a long time.  Life went on. If you haven’t seen this, watch it with your teens. Make a point of reiterating the dangers of texting while driving. Have them turn off their phones in the car. It is too bad we can’t have a device that will turn the phones off when we start the car, and make us ALL resist the urge to be in constant communication. Turn on the music; it is less distracting than a phone! That’s your daily dose, we’ll chat again tomorrow.

More Information: Public Service Announcement (WARNING: This is a dramatization, containing realistic graphic material)

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Your Teen

Experts Recommend Screening All Teens for Major Depression

1:30

Studies indicate that one-in-five U.S. children have some for of mental, behavioral or emotional problems.  Among teens, one –in- eight may suffer from depression with only about 30 percent receiving any treatment.  Those are troubling statistics for parents, caregivers and health professionals.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), believes more needs to be done to help these children and has recommended that primary care physicians screen all patients between the ages of 12 and 18 for major depression.

Screening tools are available to help primary care doctors accurately identify major depression in adolescent patients, and there are effective treatments for this age group, the task force said.

"Primary care clinicians can play an important role in helping to identify adolescents with major depressive disorder and getting them the care they need. Accordingly, the task force recommends that primary care clinicians screen all adolescents between 12 and 18 years old for this condition," task force member Dr. Alex Krist said in a USPSTF news release.

Currently, there isn’t enough evidence to know whether screening children 11 and younger would be beneficial. The task force noted that more research on depression screening and treatment in this age group is needed.

The consequences of undiagnosed and treated major depression in teens can have serious consequences such as involvement in the criminal justice system, drug or alcohol abuse and in some cases, suicide.

"It is important to take any concern about depression seriously, regardless of age, and any parent who has a concern about their child's mood or behavior should talk with their child's primary care clinician," he said in the news release. Kemper is a professor of pediatrics at Duke University School of Medicine, in Durham, N.C.

The recommendation was published online Feb. 9 in the Annals of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics.

For more information about child and teen depression, one resource is The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at http://www.aacap.org.

You can also talk with your family doctor or pediatrician if you feel your child is suffering from depression. They should have resources for you as well.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20160208/doctors-should-screen-teens-for-major-depression-us-task-force-says

 

 

Daily Dose

Talking To Children About Sex

2.00 to read

With the recent news that teenage pregnancy rates are declinging, it seems to be a good time to discuss the importance of talking to your children about sex.Good news! Teenage pregnancy rates are declining.  So, I thought this would be a good time to discuss the importance of talking to your children about sex.

The “birds and the bees” talk is a sentinel moment and should be a required prerequisite before your child enters middle school. For some parents this “talk” is easy and does not intimidate them, but for others they get sweaty palms, and feel sick to their stomachs.is also a group in between. Wherever you fall in the spectrum really doesn’t matter, but this is one of the most important discussions parents will have with their children.  Many parents start discussing the differences between boys and girls as young as age 4 or 5. I myself have given this talk countless times and teach a class at our church as well. But, when it was time to discuss this with our first son, I too felt ill prepared. The discussion was necessitated as he was about eight-years-old and kept singing a song with the words “sex you up” in it. Obviously, I had let him listen to some inappropriate song on the radio. Nevertheless, this prompted my husband and myself to head to the bookstore to look for the appropriate book/books to begin the initial discussion and I know that book has been well worn over the years. It was not detailed, but explained in fairly simple terms how a “mommy and a daddy” each had “special parts, (which were identified correctly) that “connected” and that a sperm and an egg came together to make a baby. It was very basic, with simple cartoonish type pictures. We read the book and had a discussion together and answered any questions that he had. It went fairly well, he took in the information and went outside to play. That is just the beginning. The time came up again for further discussion when he announced at about age nine that his pet hamster, Sally, “was going to have babies.” Immaculate conception alone in her cage. Discussion number two was just around the corner. I myself do not think that any one discussion about human reproduction and sex is enough. It also depends when you begin these discussions. Some inquisitive children will ask hundreds of questions, while others won’t say a word, either way the talks must go on. Keep the information age appropriate no matter where you begin. Don’t be embarrassed as if you are they will be too. That is why it is called: The Facts of Life. But as children enter their teen years I think the discussions should be explicit and open. If you think they cannot find any information they would like by just surfing the web, then wake up, as it is all there. I would much rather sit down with my own children and discuss every detail they would like to know and at the same type impart factual information as well as our family values. The more information you give them the better decisions they may make. I believe that they should be taught abstinence, but also what to do if they are going to engage in pre-marital sex, which by the way does include oral sex. Let them know about condoms, birth control and other methods to prevent STD’s and pregnancy. We are failing our children if we do not empower them to make thoughtful, well informed choices with as much guidance as we can give them. Seeing the teen birth rate on the rise should never be due to lack of information and family discussions. That’s your daily dose, we’ll chat again tomorrow. Send Dr. Sue your question now!

Your Teen

Teens More Stressed Than Adults

2.00 to read

Teens are feeling more stressed than adults and it’s affecting every aspect of their lives according to the results from a new national survey.

The 2013 “Stress in America” survey involved responses from 1,950 adults and 1,018 teens. Teens reported that during the school year an average stress level of 5.8. That is way above 3.9, which is considered a normal level of stress. Even during the summer months, when the stress level typically decreases, teens averaged a 4.6 score. Ten was the highest score on the stress scale.  

Adults reported more stress as well with an average of 5.1 on the scale.

Teens reported that their main stressor was school, with one out of ten saying that stress led to lower grades. Money was the top reason given for stess among adults, followed by work and the economy.

Thirty-one percent of the teens reported feeling overwhelmed and thirty percent said they feel depressed or sad. Adolescent girls were more likely to feel down from stress than boys, which holds true in the adult population with more women reporting feeling depressed than men. 

 This is the first time the group has focused on teen stress. Other research has studied teen depression and other mental health concerns, but officials say this may be the most comprehensive national look at stress in teens to date. Despite anecdotal reports of high stress, researchers say stress itself in adolescents hasn't been studied broadly; global comparisons have focused on adult stress rather than teens.

Teens reported feeling irritable, angry, nervous, anxious and tired at around the same rate as adults. More than one-third of teens said they were exhausted due to the stress in their lives, and 25 percent skipped a meal because of the added pressure.

Teens seem to realize they are not doing enough to manage their stress with four out of 10 reporting that weren’t actively working towards finding positive ways to cope with their stress and thirteen percent saying that they didn’t do anything to help deal with the added pressure on their lives.

“It is alarming that the teen stress experience is so similar to that of adults. It is even more concerning that they seem to underestimate the potential impact that stress has on their physical and mental health,” APA CEO and executive vice president Norman B. Anderson said in a press release.  “In order to break this cycle of stress and unhealthy behaviors as a nation, we need to provide teens with better support and health education at school and home, at the community level and in their interactions with health care professionals.”

Like adults, stressed kids are not getting enough sleep, overeating, and not exercising.

“When spending time with teens, we can encourage them to exercise, eat well, get the sleep they need and seek support from health care professionals like psychologists to help them develop healthier coping mechanisms for stress sooner rather than later,” said Anderson.

How parents handle stress impacts how their children are able to handle stress. Family dinners together or time that is specifically set aside for family discussions provide a good opportunity to discuss what is going on in each others lives. Talk to your kids about your day and what events caused you stress, what you learned from them and how you handled them. Ask your child to be honest about the kinds of things that make them feel overwhelmed or stressed. It’s not a parent’s job to try and protect their children from everything that is unpleasant, but to teach them positive coping mechanisms so they can grow into healthy and happy adults.

Source: Michelle Castillo, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/stress-in-america-survey-reveals-teens-feel-more-pressure-than-adults/

Sharon Jayson, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/02/11/stress-teens-psychological/5266739/

Your Teen

Teens Suffering from FOMA (Fear of Missing Out)

2:00

At one time or another, we’ve probably all experienced the feeling that our friends are out having fun, doing interesting things or just simply meeting up, and for some reason, we didn’t know. It’s called the fear of missing out or FOMA. Teenagers are particularly susceptible to FOMA in today’s super charged social media network, according to a new study.

Experts from the Australian Psychological Society (APS) found FOMO elevates anxiety levels of teenagers and may contribute to depression.

It’s not only teens whose stress levels are increasing due to heavy social media use, but adults are also experiencing more anxiety.

The findings, released in the 2015 National Stress and Wellbeing in Australia Survey, measured the levels of stress that Aussies experience and how the use of social media affects their behavior and wellbeing.

Dr. Mubarak Rahamathulla, a senior social work lecturer at Flinders University who led the report, said that levels of anxiety, stress and depression of Aussies who were involved in the study have increased since the beginning of their survey.

The survey included questions on Aussies' experience on social media, as well as a separate survey containing questions about FOMO for teenagers who were aged 13 to 17 years old. More than half of all the teenagers involved in the survey admit that they use social media 15 minutes before bed every night.

Four in ten of the teens said they use social media when they are in the company of others and one in four said they check in on social media while eating breakfast and lunch every day.

The fear of missing out seems to affect teens more that are heavy social media users. About 50 percent of the respondents said they felt the fear of missing out on their friends' inside jokes and events, as well as the chance to show they're having fun on social media.

All this checking in to see what their friends are up to seems to leave some teens feeling like they are living less rewarding lives. For instance, a user may be watching TV at home and decides to casually check and scroll through Facebook. Only, the user sees that his friends have posted photos of them out clubbing and he suddenly feels like he's missing out on something important.

“There is a very strong positive correlation between the hours spent on digital technology and higher stress and depression," said Rahamathulla.

He added that teens today are somehow getting confused between the online world and the real world.

APS member and psychologist Adam Ferrier said that people have always felt the fear of missing out on parties and activities even before the Internet, but social media indeed elevated the FOMO intensely.

Some teens are catching on that too much social media isn’t good for one’s sense of wellbeing. They’ve made the decision to cut back and spend more time with family, doing something they like to do or enjoying a little quiet time alone. But many teens are caught up in the habit of checking on what others are doing and comparing their life to their friends.   

Experts agree that parents need to be aware of how much time their child is spending on social media and watch for symptoms of depression or anxiety. Redirecting their attention or requiring that electronics be turned off after a certain hour at night can help them remember that the real world is a good place to visit and hang out for awhile.

Source: Alyssa Navarro, http://www.techtimes.com/articles/104417/20151109/fomo-leads-to-depression-and-anxiety-in-teen-social-media-users.htm

 

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