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Concussions

Your Toddler

Toddlers at High Risk for Chemical Eye Burns

1:45

You might think that most chemical eye burns occur at work places, but according to a new study, more toddlers than adults are treated at emergency rooms.

"Household cleaners are a huge culprit," said Dr. R. Sterling Haring, who led the study. Spray bottles frequently have been implicated in other research, he said.

"The rates among 1-year-olds are 1.5 times higher than the highest rate of [eye] injury for working-age adults," said Haring, a doctoral candidate at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore.

Researchers analyzed data from 900 hospitals and found more than 144,000 ER visits related to chemical eye burns across all age groups.

When the researchers broke the data down by year of life, 24-year-olds had the highest rate among adults. Among children, 1- and 2-year-olds were injured most often, with this age group 1.5 times more likely to get an eye burn than a 24-year-old, the findings showed.

"We see chemical eye injuries in the little kids all the time," said Dr. Roberto Warman, a pediatric ophthalmologist at Nicklaus Children's Hospital in Miami, who wasn't involved in the study.

"It's always the same story. They got access to the cleaners in the house. These are some extremely serious injuries," Warman said.

The investigators discovered that when the chemical agent that caused the burn was known, alkaline injuries were more common than acid injuries. Alkaline agents are found in oven cleaners, drain cleaners, chlorine bleach and ammonia products, according to background notes in the study.

Alkaline chemicals can continue to burn into the eye even after contact with the compound, Haring explained. Damage can be blinding, he said.

Workplaces often have precautions set up to avoid eye accidents while home products are not always locked or secured in a place a child can’t reach. Warman and Haring agreed that parents and industry could do a better job protecting young children.

The toddlers' injuries occur at home most often and are more common among lower-income families. They also are more common in the South, according to the analysis of 2010-2013 data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample.

Haring's advice: Never keep household chemicals under the sink. "It's a terrible idea, even with a lock," he said.

Instead, store all cleaning supplies and other potentially harmful products "in a lockable cabinet out of reach," he said. Supervise their use if, for instance, older children are using them. Also, be sure to turn the spray bottle nozzles to the "off" position before storing them, Haring advised.

In addition, Warman said, "The industry can also help us more. They can make caps in a way that they are harder and harder to open."

Even with precautions, however, chemicals might sometimes get into the eye. If that happens, run tap water over the eye for a while, Haring said. Emergency room doctors usually rinse the child's eye with saline for 20 minutes or more, often after applying antiseptic eye drops to reduce the pain, according to information from Boston Children's Hospital.

The study was published online Aug. 4 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

Story Source:  Kathleen Doheny, https://consumer.healthday.com/eye-care-information-13/eye-and-vision-problem-news-295/toddlers-at-high-risk-of-chemical-eye-burns-study-713568.html

 

Your Child

2 Doses of Chickenpox Vaccine Almost 100 Percent Effective

2:00

Chickenpox is one of the most common childhood illnesses. It is a viral infection caused by the Varicella zoster virus and produces a painful, itchy rash with small, fluid-filled blisters.

It occurs most often in early spring and late winter and is highly contagious. Typically, chickenpox occurs in kids between 6 and 10 years of age.

A new study shows that among schoolchildren, two doses of the chickenpox vaccine is more effective than one.

Giving the first dose at age 1 and the second dose at ages 4 to 6 is nearly 100 percent effective in preventing the once common childhood disease, researchers have found.

"A second dose of varicella [chickenpox] vaccine provides school-aged children with better protection against the chickenpox virus, compared to one dose alone or no vaccination," said lead researcher Dana Perella, of the Philadelphia Department of Public Health.

Two doses of the vaccine protected against the moderate to severe chickenpox infections that can lead to complications and hospitalizations, she said.

Before routine chickenpox vaccination began in 1995, virtually all children were infected at some point, sometimes with serious complications. About 11,000 children were hospitalized each year for chickenpox, and 100 died annually from the disease, according to the CDC.

One-dose vaccination greatly reduced incidence of chickenpox, but outbreaks continued to be reported in schools where many kids had been vaccinated. That led the CDC in 2006 to recommend a second vaccine dose.

To evaluate effectiveness of the double- dose regimen, Perella and colleagues collected data on 125 children with chickenpox in Philadelphia and northern Los Angeles and compared them with 408 kids who had not had the disease.

They found that two doses of the vaccine was slightly more than 97 percent effective in protecting kids from chickenpox.

"With improved protection provided by two-dose varicella vaccination compared with one-dose only, continued decreases in the occurrence of chickenpox, including more severe infections and hospitalizations, are expected as more children routinely receive dose two between the ages of 4 and 6 years," Perella said.

For children with weakened immune systems that cannot take the vaccine, having their classmates and playmates protected by the vaccine helps protect them against the viral infection.

School vaccine requirements should include two-dose varicella vaccination, Perella said.

"In addition, 'catch-up' varicella vaccination is also important," she said. This applies to anyone over 6 who haven’t had a second vaccine dose, especially if they could be exposed to chickenpox or shingles - a painful condition in older people caused by reactivation of the chickenpox virus, she said.

Most healthy children who get chickenpox do not have serious complications from the illness. But there are cases when chickenpox has caused hospitalization, serious complications and even death.

A child may be at greater risk for complications if he or she:

·      Has a weakened immune system

·      Is under 1 year of age

·      Suffers from eczema

·      Takes a medication called salicylate

·      Was born prematurely

The report was published online March 14 and will appear in the April print issue of the journal Pediatrics.

Story sources: Steven Reinberg, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20160314/two-dose-chickenpox-shot-gets-the-job-done-study-shows

http://www.parents.com/health/vaccines/chicken-pox/chickenpox-facts/

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Happy Halloween

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Your Child

Family Dog Responsible for Most Bite Injuries

2:00

Is your child more likely to be bitten by the family dog or someone else’s dog? Many parents might assume that most dog attacks occur from either strays or another’s dog because they feel like know their own pet’s behavior.

A new study points out that even man’s best friend can turn on a child or adult under the right circumstances.

The recently published study, in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery, demonstrated that more than 50 percent of the dog-bite injuries treated at Phoenix Children's Hospital came from dogs belonging to an immediate family member.

The study noted that many times, because a pet is almost considered a family member, parents of young children are too relaxed about the interactions between their children and the family dog, presenting a false sense of safety.

 "More than 60 percent of the injuries we studied required an operation," said lead author Dr. Erin Garvey, a surgical resident at Mayo Clinic "While the majority of patients were able to go home the next day, the psychological effects of being bitten by a dog also need to be taken into account."

The retrospective study looked at a 74-month period between 2007 and 2013 in which there were 670 dog-bite injuries treated at Phoenix Children's Hospital. Of those, 282 were severe enough to require evaluation by the trauma team or transportation by ambulance. Characteristics of the most common injuries included:

·      Both genders were affected (55 percent male)

·      The most common patient age was 5 years, but spanned from 2 months to 17 years

·      28 dog breeds were identified; the most common dog was pit bull

·      More than 50 percent of the dogs belonged to the patient's immediate family

·      The most common injuries were lacerations (often to the face), but there were also a number of fractures and critical injuries such as severe neck and genital trauma

 “The next step is to find out what type of education is needed and for whom - the parents, owners of the dogs and even the kids themselves," explains Dr. Garvey.

The Injury Prevention Center at Phoenix Children's Hospital recommends that families with a dog in the house follow the safety tips below:

·      Never leave infants or young children alone with a dog, including the family dog.

·      Make sure all dogs in the home are neutered or spayed.

·      Take time to train and socialize your dogs.

·      Keep dogs mentally stimulated by walking and exercising them.

·      Teach children appropriate ways to interact with animals.

A good rule of thumb is to learn how to read your dog’s body language. There are signs a dog will give when they are uncomfortable or are feeling threatened:

·      Tensed body

·      Stiff tail

·      Pulled back head and/or ears

·      Furrowed brow

·      Eyes rolled so the whites are visible

·      Yawning

·      Flicking tongue

·      Intense stare

·      Backing away

Many of the dog’s body signals listed above are the opposite of how humans display fear or irritation, and some are natural body occurrences that have nothing to do with how we react to being threatened – such as yawning, For canines, however, all of the above means -  back-off.

One more important note, when putting space between yourself and a dog that might bite, never turn your back on him and run away. A dog's natural instinct will be to chase you.

Sources: Jim McVeigh. http://www.tri-cityherald.com/2015/05/27/3579702_dog-bite-study-shows-familiarity.html?rh=1

http://www.humanesociety.org/animals/dogs/tips/avoid_dog_bites.html

 

 

Your Baby

Fisher-Price Recalls Infant Cradle Swings

1:30

Fisher-Price is recalling three models of their cradle swings: CHM84 Soothing Savanna Cradle 'n Swing, CMR40 Sweet Surroundings Cradle 'n Swing, and CMR43 Sweet Surroundings Butterfly Friends Cradle 'n Swing.

The swings have two different swinging motions - rocking side-to-side, or swinging head-to-toe, and six different swing speeds from low to high. The product number is located on the seat under the pad. 

When the seat peg is not fully engaged the seat can fall unexpectedly, posing a risk of injury to the child.

Fisher-Price has received two reports of a seat peg coming out from the seat, causing the seat to fall. No injuries have been reported.

Consumers should immediately stop using the recalled cradle swing and contact Fisher-Price for revised assembly instructions.

The infant cradle swings were sold at buybuyBaby, Target and other stores nationwide and online at Amazon.com and other websites from November 2015 through March 2016 for about $170.

Consumers can contact Fisher-Price at 800-432-5437 from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. ET Monday through Friday, or online at www.service.mattel.com and click on Recalls & Safety Alerts for more information. 

Source: http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Recalls/2016/Fisher-Price-Recalls-Infant-Cradle-Swings/#remedy

Parenting

Tips for Family Thanksgiving Travel

2:00

Whether you’re traveling through the woods or over the highways and skyways to grandma’s house, Thanksgiving travel can be a challenge for families.

Here are a few tips to make the trip a little less stressful.

·      Don’t forget to pack your patience! With over 47.8 million Americans expected to travel at least 50 miles this Thanksgiving, the highways and airports are going to be overflowing with folks trying to make it to their destinations. If you’re one of the many families transporting children from one point to the next, your patience will be tested! Don’t forget to take deep breaths when plans don’t go quite as expected. Make the journey as important as the destination.

·      Be prepared. Fill the car with gas before your travel day. If you’re flying, get to the airport with plenty of time to check in and get the kids settled before your flight leaves. Rushing at the last minute is guaranteed to add more stress and short tempers.

·      Don’t forget the toys and car chargers. Whether you’re traveling by air, train or car – at some point your children are going to be bored and in need of a distraction. Tablets, phones or DVD players can keep them entertained for hours. For toddlers and young children, their favorite blankie or toy can ease the discomfort of being strapped in a seat for long periods of time.  Bring along a never before opened game or book. Discovering something new can be a great amusement!

·      Travel light. The fewer suitcases you have to keep track of, the better. Over-packing can also compete with precious space in the car or cost you a bundle of money at the airport.

·      Bring snacks and water. Everyone is likely to get a little hungry and grouchy during a road trip. If stopping along the way isn’t an option, pack some healthy snacks and water to fill the belly between destinations.

·      If traveling by car, expect delays and find pit stops ahead of time. Is there any road in the United States that isn’t under construction at some point? Expect road delays and know where you can pull off for a quick pit stop. Trying to find a place on-the-fly might not work when someone has to go the bathroom! You know your family best, planning ahead for breaks could prevent some unwanted “accidents.” There are travel websites that can help you plan your route. On Thanksgiving Day, options may be more limited. Check ahead for locations that will be open and are family friendly.

·      Check the weather. One of the biggest causes of travel interruptions is weather delay on the roads and at the airports. Wherever your destination, know what weather to expect when you get there and on the way. It may be sunny and warm where you live but snowy and cold where you are going. If an anticipated trip looks too dangerous because of icy roads or snowstorms, consider cancelling and planning on getting together with the extended family at some other time.

Visiting with family and friends on Thanksgiving Day to acknowledge all of our blessings and even our challenges, is a wonderful tradition. But there are times it’s simply not possible to make the celebration. That’s ok. Real life doesn’t always accommodate plans for a certain date designated as a holiday. New family traditions are often created when something stands in the way of fulfilling old traditions.

Here’s to you and your family – however you choose to spend the holiday- Happy Thanksgiving!

Your Child

Talking to Your Child About Tragic News Events

2:00

Another tragedy has taken place, this time a terrorist attack in Paris, France.  Children, adolescents and adults have lost their lives or been seriously injured while out for an evening of fun, errands or romance.  Media outlets have been covering the events, sometimes showing graphic video or photos from the bloody scenes.

When children view these images or hear the stories, they can become scared and worried that the same thing will happen to them. 

Whenever catastrophic local, national or global events take place, it’s easy to assume that your child doesn’t really know what is going on or understand the gravity. But, in this age of instant and abundant information, they most likely do. Children are very sensitive to their parents and friends’ feelings. They are more tuned in than you might think.

Children sense when their parents are really worried, whether they're watching the news or talking about it with others. No matter what children know about a crisis, it's especially disconcerting for them to realize that their parents are scared, angry or shocked.

When bad things happen, children want to know what is going on.  It doesn’t have to be an international event. Local tragedies such as a flood, tornado, shooting, kidnapping, suicide, house fire or car wreck can be more frightening to children than events taking place across the world or in another state.

So, how do you talk with your child about such unhappy and threatening things? I’ve turned to Mr. Rogers to share with you his calming and thoughtful insights. The first time he addressed this topic was after Robert Kennedy’s assassination. Parents and educators turned to him for guidance then and his advice still holds true today.

In times of crisis, children want to know, "Who will take care of me?" They're dependent on adults for their survival and security. They're naturally self-centered. Their world is small and their life experience is limited. They need to hear very clearly that their parents are doing all they can to take care of them and to keep them safe. They also need to know that people in the government, in their community and in the world, and other people they don't even know, are working hard to keep them safe, too.

One of the ways young children express feelings is through play. However, sometimes events that happen are violent, so parents need to be nearby to redirect play if it takes a turn in that direction. More nurturing play can help children process the different activities and needs that happen around certain types of events. Play involving being a doctor or nurse in a hospital setting or creating a pretend meal for emergency workers or families can help children understand that there are good people and helpful actions that also take place when something bad happens.

When children are scared and anxious, they might become more dependent, clingy, and afraid to go to bed at night. Whining, aggressive behavior, or toilet accidents may be their way of asking for more comfort from the important adults in their lives. Little by little, as we adults around them become more confident, hopeful and secure, our children can experience a more calming sense of security.

When shocking event happens, it’s easy to get drawn into watching the news for hours and hours. Think back to 9-11 when there was non-stop coverage for days with repeated video of the towers being hit and falling. It created post-traumatic stress disorder, nation-wide. As hard as it is for adults to assimilate, it’s even harder for children. Once you have the information, turn the TV off or find something else for your kids to watch. Monitor their online activity as well to see if they are seeing too much graphic information or too many stories of “What if this happened here?”

Exposing ourselves to so many tragedies can make us feel hopeless, insecure, and even depressed, feelings that even young children can sense. We help our children-and ourselves-if we're able to limit our own television viewing. Our children need us to spend time with them-away from the frightening images on the screen.

Limiting our child’s media exposure doesn’t mean we don’t talk about what has happened with them.

Even if we wanted to, it would be impossible to give our children all the reasons for such things as war, terrorists, abuse, murders, fires, hurricanes, and earthquakes. If very young children ask questions, our best answer may be to ask them, "What do you think happened?" If the answer is, "I don't know," then the simplest reply might be something like, "I'm sad about the news, and I'm worried. But I love you, and I'll take care of you."

If we don't let children know it's okay to feel sad and scared, they may try to hide those feelings or think something is wrong with them whenever they do feel that way. They certainly don't need details of what's making us sad or scared, but if we can help them accept their own feelings as natural and normal, their feelings will be much more manageable for them.

Your child’s age and emotional IQ should be your guide on how much detail you go into when discussing tragic events. Very young children do not need a lot of detail. Children 7 and under are most concerned with safety. They need to know that you and they are secure. That’s why it important to keep the TV at a minimum for kids in this age group. They can identify strongly to pictures of other young children in peril or crying because they’ve lost someone dear to them. At this age, kids are most concerned with separation from you.  Assure them that you are watching out for them and will protect them.

Children between the ages of 8 and 12 will often notice the morality of events.  You may have to explain the basics of prejudice, bias, and civil and religious strife. But be careful about making generalizations, since kids will take you at your word. This is a good time to ask them what they know, since they'll probably have gotten their information from friends, and you may have to correct facts. This age group will most likely be online more. While it’s still important to keep news viewing under control, online viewing and searching should be monitored as well. It’s a good age to discuss lots of views and opinions about events. Read stories together and then ask them what they think.

Teens will probably get their news independently of you. Talking to them can offer great insights into their developing senses of justice and morality. It will also give you the opportunity to throw your own insights into the mix, but don’t dismiss their opinions or insights just because they may not be the same as yours. They will shut down communication quickly if they feel their ideas are not being valued.  Discuss the ways that different media covers events. Again, ask them what they think.

Having to discuss tragic or scary events with our children isn’t new. Generations of parents have had to address various topics from volcano eruptions that wiped out an entire city to the Holocaust to the cold war. But how we get our information has changed dramatically. Media in one form or another is prolific with gory images and misinformation available at the touch of finger. So parents have to react quicker and with more assurance and details than they would probably like. But that’s what we do. We protect our children in all ways, as best we can, with loving and clear information.

Sources:  http://pbskids.org/rogers//parentsteachers/special/scarynews-thoughts.html

Carolyn Knorr, https://www.commonsensemedia.org/blog/explaining-the-news-to-our-kids

 

Your Toddler

Anchor It!

1:45

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has launched “Anchor It”, a national public education campaign, to help make people aware of the dangers that free-standing furniture and TVs present, particularly to children.

The annual number of children injured or killed from furniture and TV tip-overs is astounding.

According to CPSC data, unstable and unsecured TVs and large pieces of furniture kill a child every two weeks, on average, in tip-over incidents that are easily preventable.  CPSC also reported that 38,000 Americans go to emergency rooms each year with injuries related to tip-overs of top-heavy furniture or televisions placed on furniture, instead of a TV stand.  Two-thirds of those injuries involved children younger than 5.  Additionally, between 2000 and 2013, 84 percent of the 430 deaths reported to CPSC involved children younger than 10.

A January 2015 CPSC report found that a television tipping over from an average size dresser falls with thousands of pounds of force. 

The impact of a falling TV is like being caught between two NFL linemen colliding at full-speed—10 times. 

“Every 24 minutes in the U.S. a child goes to the emergency room because of a tip-over incident involving furniture or a TV,” said CPSC Commissioners Marietta Robinson and Joseph Mohorovic. “We must take action now. CPSC’s new ‘Anchor It!’ campaign is a call to action for parents and caregivers to ‘get on top of it, before they do.’ If we can prevent one more death, it will be worth it.”

Cards and posters are being distributed parents and caregivers of toddlers at daycare centers and preschools. A list of safety steps parents and caregivers can take are printed on the handouts. They are:

·      Buy and install low-cost anchoring devices to prevent TVs, dressers, bookcases or other furniture from tipping.

·      Avoid leaving items, such as remote controls and toys, in places where kids might be tempted to climb up to reach for them.

·      Store heavier items on lower shelves or in lower drawers.

·      Place TVs on a sturdy, low base and push them as far back as possible, particularly if anchoring is not possible.

·      If purchasing a new TV, consider recycling older ones not currently used. If moving the older TV to another room, be sure it is anchored properly to the wall.

The “Anchor It” campaign’s website (www.Anchorit.gov) shows you how to anchor furniture and television sets properly, with easy to follow instructions. Keep your little one safe and Anchor It!

 

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