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Your Baby

Which Fish is Healthier for Pregnant Women?

1:45

New federal nutrition guidelines say that pregnant and breastfeeding women should eat 2 to 3 servings of fish every week. However, there are certain fish that should be eaten only once per week and other fish that should be avoided entirely by pregnant and nursing women.

One reason for the differentiation between certain types of fish is its likelihood of containing either very low or high levels of mercury.

Nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of mercury. But some contain high levels.  A type of mercury called methylmercury is most easily accumulated in the body and is particularly dangerous.

Eating large amounts of these fish and shellfish can result in high levels of mercury in the human body. In a fetus or young child, this can damage the brain and nervous system.

The highest mercury concentration belongs to fish that typically live a long time. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid King mackerel, Marlin, Orange roughy, Shark, Swordfish, Tilefish from the Gulf of Mexico and Bigeye Tuna. These are fish that usually contain high levels of mercury.

The new guidelines come with a handy chart that gives you the best choices of fish, good choices and fish to avoid.

Naturally, many pregnant women are concerned about eating fish after hearing about the possibility of consuming any mercury whatsoever. It’s important to remember that most of the fish consumed by Americans falls into the safe category.

Studies show that fish provide an array of nutrients that are important for your baby's early development. Most experts agree that the key nutrients are two omega-3 fatty acids – DHA and EPA – that are difficult to find in other foods. Fish is also low in saturated fat and high in protein, vitamin D, and other nutrients that are crucial for a developing baby and a healthy pregnancy.

How do fish end up consuming mercury? Some of the sources (such as volcanoes and forest fires) are natural. It's also released into the air by power plants, cement plants, and certain chemical and industrial manufacturers, landfills and farming runoff.

When mercury settles into water, bacteria convert it into a form called methylmercury. Fish absorb methylmercury from the water they swim in and the organisms they eat. Methylmercury binds tightly to the proteins in fish muscle and remains there even after the fish is cooked. Fish that live a long time consume more mercury.

There are many benefits to eating fish; you just need to be aware of the kinds of fish you eat. To help you make the best choices, the new chart released by the FDA and EPA is shown below.

Story sources: Megan Thielking, https://www.statnews.com/2017/01/19/fda-guidelines-fish/

http://www.babycenter.com/0_eating-fish-during-pregnancy-how-to-avoid-mercury-and-still_10319861.bc

http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/Metals/UCM536321.pdf

Your Baby

Pregnant? Exercise is Good For You!

2:00

For years, the prevailing thought has been – if you didn’t exercise before, during pregnancy wasn’t the time to start. That’s no longer the case says, Alejandro Lucia, a professor of exercise physiology at the European University of Madrid.

A group of researchers want women to know that when it comes to exercise, there is a strong consensus of benefit for both the mother and developing fetus.

"Within reason, with adequate cautions, it's important for [everyone] to get over this fear," said Lucia.

According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), which updated its recommendations in 2015, women without major medical or obstetric complications should get at least 20 to 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise — enough to get you moving, while still being able to carry on a conversation — on most days of the week.

Lucia noted that evidence now suggests that starting an exercise program while pregnant can provide health benefits to both the mother and the growing fetus. Obviously, though, if you're new to exercise, take it slowly — you can work up to that 20 or 30 minutes.

The authors of the study say physical activity can prevent excessive weight gain, which can complicate the pregnancy and contribute to obesity. A review of existing research published in 2015 by the Cochrane Library found "high-quality evidence" that exercise during pregnancy can help prevent gaining too much weight, and may possibly lower the likelihood of a cesarean section, breathing problems in newborns, maternal hypertension and a baby that is significantly bigger than average. And of course, exercise promotes general cardiovascular and muscular health.

Other health problems can be helped such as chronic high blood pressure, gestational diabetes and women who are overweight or obese. Researchers say women with these conditions should be encouraged to exercise.

However, there are some health conditions in pregnancy where exercise should be avoided. According to the ACOG guidelines, women should avoid aerobic exercise if they have significant heart disease, persistent bleeding in the second or third trimester, severe anemia and risk of premature labor, among other conditions. And certain symptoms, such as contractions or dizziness during exercise, should be checked out quickly.

The bottom line is that women need to make a plan with their physician, taking into account their exercise history, their health, and the risk of pregnancy complications, says James Pivarnik, a professor of kinesiology and epidemiology at Michigan State University. He wasn't an author of the viewpoint but has conducted research on exercise and pregnancy.

Moderation is the goal during any exercise program. Long distance running and heavy weight lifting are not recommended. ACOG also recommends against contact sports, hot yoga, and exercises done in the supine position, i.e. lying face up, starting in the second trimester.

There are always exceptions to the rule, particularly with women who are highly trained athletes before they become pregnant. These women should still form plan with their OB/GYN on how much and what kinds of exercises are safe for them.

Among the general population and pregnant women specifically, people will respond differently to an exercise program. "But we know if you do the kind of things they're talking about here, the odds are your risk will be lower," says. Pivarnik.

Story source: Katherine Hobson, http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/03/21/520951610/exercising-while-pregnant-is-almost-always-a-good-idea

Your Baby

Eating During Labor May Speed Up Delivery

1:45

In many hospitals, when a woman is in labor, all she is allowed to eat are a few ice chips. That rule may need updating, according to a new study that finds women who were allowed to eat before delivery had a slightly shorter labor than those who were restricted to ice chips or sips of water - although the study can't prove that eating caused deliveries to happen sooner.

The practice of limiting food during labor goes back a study in the 1940s in which women who delivered under general anesthesia were at risk of inhaling their stomach contents and choking in it, writes senior author, Dr. Vincenzo Berghella, of Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, and his colleagues in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

“We really don’t know how much if anything people can eat or drink in labor," said Berghella,.

Whether women can have more than water or ice chips as they labor to give birth is a common discussion among healthcare providers, he told Reuters Health.

General anesthesia is not commonly used during delivery these days, but the old guidelines are still in use.

For the new study, the researchers compiled data from randomized controlled trials that compared the labor outcomes of women who were allowed to eat only ice chips or water and those who were allowed to eat or drink a bit more.

For example, one study allowed women to drink a mixture of honey and date syrup. Another study allowed all types of food and drinks. A few others allowed women to drink liquids with carbohydrates.

Overall, the researchers analyzed 10 trials that included 3,982 women in labor. All were only delivering one child - not twins or triplets - and were not at risk for cesarean delivery.

The women with the less restrictive diets were not at increased risk for other complications, including vomiting or choking, during the use of general anesthesia.

And women who were allowed to eat and drink more than the traditional ice chips and water had labors that were shorter, by an average of 16 minutes, compared to women with the more restrictive diets.

Speaking from experience, 16 minutes less of labor pains is a real bonus. How does adding more liquid or food during delivery help reduce the time before delivery? The researchers presented some ideas.

"If we’re well hydrated and have adequate carbohydrate in our body, our muscles work better," said Berghella. A woman's uterus is largely made of muscle.

Another of his studies, which found women who received more fluid than normal delivered faster than other women, reinforces the finding.

Berghella said it's still common practice for women with uncomplicated births to be restricted to water or ice chips during labor.

"The evidence from well-done studies is they can have more than that," he said.

Do women really want to eat much during labor? Probably not, there’s a lot going on in the body as labor progresses.  But more liquids and some light carbohydrates during the early part of labor may be welcomed – especially if they shorten the time between labor and when baby enters the world.

Story source: Andrew M. Seaman, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-pregnancy-labor-food-idUSKBN15O2ZR

 

Your Baby

Eating Fish During Pregnancy Benefits Baby’s Brain Development

2:00

Can eating more fish during pregnancy help babies’ brains function better as they grow older? Yes, according to a new study from Spain. The researchers say that mothers who eat three substantial servings of fish – each week- during pregnancy may be giving their children an advantage as they mature.

Researchers followed nearly 2,000 mother-child pairs from the first trimester of pregnancy through the child’s fifth birthday and found improved brain function in the kids whose mothers ate the most fish while pregnant, compared to children of mothers who ate the least.

Even when women averaged 600 grams, or 21 ounces, of fish weekly during pregnancy, there was no sign that mercury or other pollutants associated with fish were having a negative effect that offset the apparent benefits.

“Seafood is known to be an important source of essential nutrients for brain development, but at the same time accumulates mercury from the environment, which is known to be neurotoxic,” lead author Jordi Julvez, of the Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology in Barcelona, said in an email to Reuters Health.

This important health concern prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to come up with a guideline for pregnant women in 2014. It encourages women to eat more fish during pregnancy, but limit the intake to no more than 12 ounces per week.

For this study, researchers analyzed data from the Spanish Childhood and Environment Project, a large population study that recruited women in their first trimester of pregnancy, in four provinces of Spain, between 2004 and 2008.

Julvez and colleagues focused on records of the women’s consumption of large fatty fish such as swordfish and albacore tuna, smaller fatty fish such as mackerel, sardines, anchovies or salmon, and lean fish such as hake or sole, as well as shellfish and other seafood.

Women were tested for blood levels of vitamin D and iodine, and cord blood was tested after delivery to measure fetal exposure to mercury and PCB pollutants. At ages 14 months and five years, the children underwent tests of their cognitive abilities and Asperger Syndrome traits to assess their neuropsychological development.

On average, the women had consumed about 500 g, or three servings, of seafood per week while pregnant. But with every additional 10 g per week above that amount, children’s test scores improved, up to about 600 g. The link between higher maternal consumption and better brain development in children was especially apparent when kids were five.

The researchers also saw a consistent reduction in autism-spectrum traits with increased maternal fish consumption.

Mothers’ consumption of lean fish and large fatty fish appeared most strongly tied to children’s scores, and fish intake during the first trimester, compared to later in pregnancy, also had the strongest associations.

“I think that in general people should follow the current recommendations,” Julvez said. “Nevertheless this study pointed out that maybe some of them, particularly the American ones, should be less stringent.”

Julvez noted that there didn’t appear to be any additional benefit when women ate more than 21 ounces (about 595 g) of fish per week.

“I think it's really interesting, and it shed a lot more light on the benefits of eating fish during pregnancy,” said Dr. Ashley Roman, director of Maternal Fetal Medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York.

“I think what's interesting about this study compared to some data previously is that they better quantify the relationship between how much fish is consumed in a diet and then the benefits for the fetus and ultimately the child,” said Roman, who was not involved in the study.

Roman also noted that pregnant women should avoid certain fish such as tilefish, shark, swordfish and giant mackerel. These are larger fish with longer life spans that may accumulate more mercury in their tissue.

While fish may be a great source of protein and benefit brain development in utero, most experts agree that women should consult their obstetrician about what fish are safer to eat and how much they should eat during pregnancy.

The study was published online in the January edition of the American Journal of Epidemiology

Source: Shereen Lehman, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-pregnancy-fish-idUSKCN0UW1S4

 

 

 

Your Baby

Singing to Baby in the Womb Decreases Crying After Birth

2:00

There is no shortage of advice for mothers-to-be about what to do once baby arrives. But, there’s something you can do before baby is born to help bring a calmer child into the world. The key is singing to baby while he or she is still in utero, according to a new study.

Researchers divided about 170 pregnant women into two groups; one group sang lullabies in the months immediately before and after birth. The other group did not sing to their baby at all.

They found that babies from the singing group generally cried 18.5 per cent of the time compared to 28.2 per cent of the time in the group who were not sung to.

Meanwhile for those with colic - excessive or frequent crying where there is no ill health - the babies who had enjoyed prenatal lullabies tended to cry for about a quarter of the time.

How well moms and babies were able to bond was also measured after birth. Researchers used a scientific measurement called the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale while they also recorded hours of baby sleep, crying incidences and bouts of colic.

In the weeks following birth, the postnatal bonding measurement was a little higher among the singers - 1.96 against 1.28 on the scale.

The authors concluded that: "Mothers singing lullabies could improve maternal-infant bonding. It could also have positive effects on neonatal behavior and maternal stress.”

Babies cry for many reasons. It’s how they communicate hunger, pain, fear, the need to sleep and more.

The most common reason for crying is hunger. Once you recognize the signs of hunger, you can feed before they start. Some signs to watch for are lip smacking, fussiness, putting their hands to their mouths and pushing their heads into your hand or shoulder.

Colic (tummy troubles) is also a common cause of crying. This may come after feeding, so burping the baby is often helpful. If your baby has colic a lot be sure to talk to your pediatrician.

A dirty diaper will trigger crying. This is an easy one to control; check and change often.

Babies need a lot of sleep. Instead of nodding off easily, babies may fuss and cry – especially when they're overtired.

Creating a quiet and warm (but not too warm or hot) room helps, plus rocking baby will often soothe and send them to dreamland. Also, make sure that their clothing is soft. Scratchy blankets or clothes can irritate their tender skin.

And of course, babies cry when they don’t feel well. Discuss what symptoms to look for and the best way to take your little one’s temperature with your pediatrician.

Sometimes, baby just cry and we’re not really sure why, after all, they can’t tell us. They may just want to be held and cuddled. We all like that.

The research was undertaken by the University of Milan and published in the journal Women and Birth.

Story sources: Henry Bodkin, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/03/07/sing-bump-lullabies-babies-womb-decreases-crying/

https://www.babycenter.com/0_12-reasons-babies-cry-and-how-to-soothe-them_9790.bc

 

Parenting

Why Moms-To-Be Might Want to Hire a Doula

2:00

Ever heard of a doula?  You’re not alone if the answer is no.  The word “doula” comes from the ancient Greek meaning “ a woman who serves.”

According to DONA International, a doula is now used to refer to a trained and experienced professional who provides continuous physical, emotional and informational support to the mother before, during and just after birth; or who provides emotional and practical support during the postpartum period.

A recent study found that women with doula care had 22% lower odds of giving birth prematurely, and were less likely to have a C-section. (Among the women with doulas, 20.4% gave birth via cesarean, compared to 34.2% of women without doulas.)

For pregnant women, doulas can offer emotional and physical support throughout the pregnancy and labor; either in a hospital setting or at home.  There are also doulas that are certified to help mothers postpartum.

While many people may not have heard of doulas, they are beginning to gain some recognition.  TIME Magazine recently published an article on the 4 reasons why moms-to-be should consider hiring one.  The author spoke with Jada Shapiro, founder of the doula referral service, Birth Day Presence, in New York City.

1. They provide extra care and support:

Although every doula has a unique approach, their main role is to care for the mom-to-be. 

“Doulas offer continuous support to women both during pregnancy and after childbirth,” Shapiro explains.

“In a way, we are trying to recreate what was typical in old-world communities when women were surrounded by a vast support system of female friends and relatives during pregnancy.”

And while doulas are not medical professionals, they possess a wealth of knowledge about pregnancy and childbirth that can be extremely helpful for expectant moms.

“We work closely with our clients to de-mystify pregnancy terminology and help women interpret their options,” says Shapiro. 

That said, one of the most common misconceptions about doulas is that they interfere with a woman’s obstetrician. Shapiro says it’s important to note that this is not the case. “Doulas complement the care a woman receives from her doctor,” she says. “We don’t get in the way of medical decisions.”

She also adds that while many people believe you can only work with a doula if you want a medicine-free birth, this is also untrue: Women with all kinds of birth plans can find it helpful to consult a doula during their pregnancy.

2. They can assist with pain management:

Moms-to-be are well aware of the stories of pain during labor and delivery as well as the growing physical un-comfortableness that comes with being pregnant.

“Doulas are well-trained in physical comfort and can offer a wide range of pain relief techniques and tools,” says Shapiro, including acupressure, hydrotherapy, birthing balls, massage, and suggesting position changes during labor. Doulas can also help moms relax with soothing imagery, music, and breathing exercises.

This individualized level of care can help moms feel a little calmer during one of the most physically and emotionally challenging days of their lives. “I believe that many mothers just feel generally more cared for and less alone during the experience of childbirth with the help of a doula,” Shapiro says.

 

3.They provide support to both moms and their partners:

“Something I hear from many of my clients is that they can’t believe how intimate their childbirth experience was, even with a doula there,” says Shapiro.

She adds that because childbirth can be such an overwhelming experience for families, having the support of a third party can be just as useful for partners as it is for moms-to-be: 

“Doulas can help recall important information from midwife or doctor appointments, lend a helping hand if mom needs a massage, or just generally absorb some of the stress from the partner,” she says. “In this way, a doula can allow partners to be fully present in the experience.”

4. They’re there for you on the big day:

“Doulas are typically on-call 24/7 during a client’s ‘due window’ of 36 to 42 weeks,” says Shapiro.

When a woman goes into labor, her doula will be available for physical and emotional support both while she’s laboring at home as well as accompanying her to the hospital.

And in addition to the aforementioned relaxation and pain relief techniques, doulas know a lot about childbirth (Shapiro, for example, has attended “more than 350” births in her 13 years as a professional doula).

“During labor, doulas might suggest alternate positions; encourage different non-medical techniques to potentially help speed up dilation, such as walking around; and just generally act as a sounding board for difficult medical decisions,” she says.

If you’re interested in learning more about doulas, you can check out the DONA International website at www.dona.org. It has information on where you can find a certified doula and how the process works.

Sources: Kathleen Mulpeter, http://news.health.com/2016/01/28/what-is-a-doula-4-reasons-pregnant-women-might-want-one/

Your Baby

Can More Fruit Consumed During Pregnancy Raise Baby’s IQ?

1:30

The USDA recommends that women consume 2 cups of fruit daily. This can include fruits that are fresh, canned, dried or frozen, as well as 100-percent fruit juice.

Fruit not only contains important vitamins, minerals and fiber but may also provide benefits for the children of moms-to-be who consume more fruit during pregnancy.

According to a new study from Alberta, Canada, the children of mothers that consumed higher levels of fruit during pregnancy, had better cognitive development by the time they were one-year-old.

Researchers said the effects of eating more fruit on test scores were significant.

"It's quite a substantial difference," Dr. Piush Mandhane, an associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Alberta, said in a press release.  "We know that the longer a child is in the womb, the further they develop -- and having one more serving of fruit per day in a mother's diet provides her baby with the same benefit as being born a whole week later."

For the study, researchers analyzed data on 688 one-year-old children collected as part of the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development study, and considered the amount of fruit their mothers consumed during pregnancy, gestational age at birth, parental lifestyle factors, including income and education, and cognitive tests given to the children.

Two-thirds of the population falls between 85 and 115 on the traditional IQ scale, with the average at about 100. The researchers found if pregnant mothers ate six or seven servings of fruit or fruit juice per day, their children scored six or seven points higher on IQ tests at one year old. There was no improvement in learning when only the babies were fed fruit.

The researchers noted that future studies will explore longer-term benefits of increased fruit consumption during pregnancy beyond one year of life, as well as whether higher intake of fruit affects development of other parts of the brain.

"We found that one of the biggest predictors of cognitive development was how much fruit moms consumed during pregnancy. The more fruit moms had, the higher their child's cognitive development," Mandhane said.

Experts recommend that pregnant women eat a variety of foods throughout the day to make sure they and their baby get the nutrients they need. A balanced diet contains fruits and vegetables, breads and grains, protein and dairy. Doctors often prescribe prenatal vitamins just in case a mom-to-be isn’t able to get all the nutrients she needs by diet alone.

While fruit is important to one’s overall diet, pregnant women should consult with their OB/GYN about their intake if they are diabetic or susceptible to gestational diabetes.

The study was published in the online edition of EBioMedicine,

Story source: Stephen Feller, http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2016/05/26/Eating-fruit-while-pregnant-helps-babys-cognitive-development-study-says/3311464273928/?spt=sec&or=hn

Your Baby

Mom’s Blood Pressure May Determine Sex of Baby

1:45

Parents-to-be have been looking for signs that predict the sex of their baby for thousands of years.  Carrying high? You’re having a girl! Is your baby bump round like a basketball? Congratulations, you’re having a boy! While these “old wives tales” have never been reliable, scientists can now make an educated guess at about four and half months, during pregnancy, with an ultrasound. Another test, amniocentesis, can be used to check the baby’s chromosomes. This tests is usually reserved for older mothers to identify possible genetic problems.

A new study from China, may offer another alternative for determining the sex of a pre-born baby  - tracking the mother’s blood pressure.

Researchers began their study in 2009, with just over 1,400 newly married women in Liuyang, China. All the women had the intention of becoming pregnant within 6 months.

Before becoming pregnant, all the women underwent full lab tests to record their blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels.

Once the women became pregnant, their health was tracked. All received routine obstetric care, including continual monitoring of blood pressure shifts, as well as the diagnosis of any complications throughout their pregnancies.

Ultimately, the study participants gave birth to 739 boys and 672 girls.

Researchers found that women who gave birth to boys had registered a higher pre-pregnancy systolic blood pressure (the upper number in a blood pressure reading) than women who gave birth to girls. Mothers of boys averaged about 113 mm Hg, versus mothers of girls who had an average near 110 mm Hg.

After making adjustments for maternal age, educational background, smoking history, obesity and blood labs, they found the blood pressure numbers still held up.

"The only thing that was related was blood pressure, but blood pressure was strongly related," said study co-author Ravi Retnakaran, M.D., an endocrinologist at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto.

The findings add another link in the mystery of what determines the sex of a fetus in utero; however, researchers say more studies are needed to prove a mother’s blood pressure determines the sex of her child.

"One of the things we don't want is for people to look at this and think, 'Oh, we can manipulate the blood pressure before pregnancy and thereby change the chances of having a boy or a girl.' We definitely are not saying that, because we are not showing cause and effect," Retnakaran said. "I think the way to look at this is that it may be telling us something very new about [our] physiology."

The study was published in the American Journal of Hypertension.

Story sources: Alan Mozes, http://www.webmd.com/baby/news/20170112/could-moms-pre-pregnancy-blood-pressure-predict-babys-gender#1

Jessica Mattern, http://www.womansday.com/health-fitness/womens-health/news/a57553/blood-pressure-sex-of-baby/

Parenting

Uterus Transplant May Bring Hope to Women That Cannot Get Pregnant

1:45

The first U.S. uterus transplant at the Cleveland Clinic may offer a future option for women who have Uterine Factor Infertility (UFI).  UFI includes women who had had a hysterectomy, fibroids or scarring and cannot get pregnant. The revolutionary procedure may also give hope to women with a rare genetic syndrome called Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH).

MRKH syndrome, which occurs in 1 in 4,500 newborn girls, is a disorder that affects the reproductive system and can cause the vagina and uterus to be underdeveloped or absent from birth, according to the National Institutes of health.

“Women who are coping with UFI have few existing options,” Dr. Tommaso Falcone, an obstetrician-gynecologist and Cleveland Clinic Women’s Health Institute chairman, said in a statement last year. “Although adoption and surrogacy provide opportunities for parenthood, both pose logistical challenges and may not be acceptable due to personal, cultural or legal reasons.”

Dr. Jennifer Ashton, ABC News' Chief Women's Health Correspondent and board-certified obstetrician and gynecologist, said the uterus transplant was a major breakthrough in women's health and huge advance for helping women with MRKH.

"The really important thing for this story is it speaks to the incredibly powerful drive that some woman have to carry their own baby," Ashton said. "Even though uterine surrogacy is legal in the U.S. for some women, it’s not enough, it’s not the same thing. This is, I think, a really exciting important step for women’s health in this country."

While this is the first time the surgery has been performed in the U.S., nine women in Sweden have had the operation and four of those women have now given birth.

There is a wait time between the surgery and when a woman should start trying to conceive.  Women who receive the transplant will likely have to take anti-rejection drugs for a long time to ensure the procedure is successful. The Cleveland Clinic transplant was performed with a uterus from a deceased organ donor.

The hospital says that it is continuing to screen possible transplant candidates. For more information on the procedure you can check out the Cleveland Clinic website  at http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/uterus-transplant.

In vitro fertilization and insemination was also considered revolutionary when the first “test tube” baby was born in 1978. Now, these procedures are commonplace for couples having difficulty conceiving.  It will be interesting to see how the uterine transplant changes future options.

Story source: Gillian Mohney, http://abcnews.go.com/Health/uterus-transplant-us-hope-women-rare-condition/story?id=37224525

Alexandria Sifferlin, http://time.com/4238596/uterus-transplant-cleveland-clinic/

 

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