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Your Child

Young Kids Overdosing on Dietary Supplements

2:00

It’s no surprised that the majority of American adults now take one or more dietary supplement daily. During the last decade, many households have switched from a simple multivitamin to more specific supplements for different dietary needs. It’s become a billion dollar industry even though many scientific studies have shown mixed results on the effectiveness of supplements on a person’s health.

What may surprise you though is the number of children that are accidently overdosing on dietary supplements found in the home. Children under the age of 6 are the most affected.

A typical scenario might play out like this.  A curious toddler opens a bottle of melatonin found on the kitchen counter, and accidentally overdoses on a supplement typically used by adults to help with sleep.

In that case, the doctor who treats the child may only have to deal with a very tired 3-year- old, but it might have been a far more serious scenario if a different dietary supplement, such as the energy product ephedra or the male enhancement herb yohimbe, had been swallowed.

"We see it all the time," said Dr. Barbara Pena, research director of the emergency medicine department at Nicklaus Children's Hospital in Miami.

From 2005 through 2012, the annual rate of accidental exposures to dietary supplements rose in the United States by nearly 50 percent, and 70 percent of those exposures involved young children.

"The biggest increase [in accidental overdoses] was in children under 6. It got our attention," said study author Henry Spiller, director of the Central Ohio Poison Center of Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus. Ninety-seven percent of the time, the children swallowed the supplements while at home, the study found.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate dietary supplements, so there is no guarantee that the ingredients listed have been tested or that they are what they claim to be. The FDA can only take action if the supplements are shown to cause harm.

During the 13 years of the study, Spiller's team also found an increase from 2000 to 2002, when the rates of calls to U.S. poison control centers involving supplements rose 46 percent each year. From 2002 to 2005, the researchers found the rates of calls declined. Spiller suspects that is because the FDA banned ephedra in 2004, after supplements containing it had been linked with adverse heart events and deaths.

Overall, only about 4.5 percent of the cases in the study had serious medical outcomes. During the 13-year period tracked, 34 deaths were attributed to supplement exposure, Spiller said.

The supplements most often associated with the greatest toxicity were ephedra (ma huang,) yohimbe (found in male enhancement supplements and other products) and energy drinks and drugs.

Ephedra is now banned, but yohimbe is not. Nearly 30 percent of yohimbe exposure calls in the study resulted in moderate or major harm. Yohimbe can cause heartbeat rhythm changes, kidney failure, seizures, heart attack and death, the researchers noted.

Often, children find the supplements on a kitchen counter, Spiller said. Parents and others may equate dietary supplements with being natural, and therefore safe. Parents usually don't keep track of how many pills are left in a supplement bottle, he said, making it more difficult to tell poison control staff how many pills were taken in an accidental exposure.

Adolescents are also susceptible to overdosing on energy products loaded with caffeine and other ingredients that can cause abnormal heart rhythms or even a heart attack. 

Both Spiller and Pena suggest that parents and caregivers treat supplements the same way they do prescriptions or O-T-C drugs.  Keep all supplements in a locked cabinet or on a high closed shelf if young children are in the house or likely to visit.

Supplements are especially scary, Pena noted, because it's not always possible to know the potency of the product.

The study was published in the Journal of Medical Toxicology.

Story source: Kathleen Doheny, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20170725/us-kids-overdosing-on-dietary-supplements#1

Your Child

Teeth Grinding and Children

2:00

When parents check in on their sleeping child, the grinding sound of teeth is not what they expect to hear.  While it may be a bit unsettling for parents, it’s not uncommon. 

The medical term for this condition is called bruxism and 2 to 3 out of every 10 kids will grind their teeth or clench their jaws during sleep, according to experts.

Bruxism often occurs during deep sleep phases or when kids are under stress.

None knows for sure why bruxism happens. In some cases, kids may grind because the top and bottom teeth aren't aligned properly. Others do it as a response to pain, such as from an earache or teething. Kids might grind their teeth as a way to ease the pain, just as they might rub a sore muscle. Many kids outgrow these fairly common causes for grinding.

Children under stress may also grind their teeth or clench their jaw. Worry over a test or a change in routine can be released through teeth grinding during sleep. More serious family problems or being the recipient of bullying can prompt bruxism. Some kids who are hyperactive also have bruxism. And sometimes kids with other medical conditions (such as cerebral palsy) or who take certain medicines can develop bruxism.

The suspected reasons are many.

The effects of undetected teeth grinding can vary as well. Sometimes, kids have little or no effect from light teeth grinding.  However, other children may experience headaches or earaches. In some cases, nighttime grinding and clenching can wear down tooth enamel, chip teeth, increase temperature sensitivity, and cause severe facial pain and jaw problems, such as temporomandibular joint disease (TMJ).  Most kids who grind, however, don't have TMJ problems unless their grinding and clenching happen a lot.

Most of the time kids aren’t aware that they are grinding their teeth. A sibling or parent usually discovers it.

What should you do if your child has bruxism? You can talk with pediatrician about it and a visit to the dentist is a good idea. Your dentist can check for chipped enamel and unusual wear and tear on your child’s teeth as well as misaligned teeth.

Most children will outgrow bruxism, but a combination of parental observation and dental visits can help keep the problem in check until they do.

If your child’s grinding and clenching is caused by, or is causing, a dental problem, the dentist may prescribe a special mouth guard that is worn at night. It looks similar to protective mouthpieces worn by athletes. While it may take a little time to get used to, positive results typically happen quickly.

For bruxism that's caused by stress, ask about what's upsetting your child and find a way to help. For example, a kid who is worried about being away from home for a first camping trip might need reassurance that mom or dad will be nearby if needed.

If the issue is more complicated, such as moving to a new town, discuss your child's concerns and try to ease any fears. Talk to your pediatrician if you’re concerned that your child may need professional help with discussing what is bothering him or her.

In rare cases, basic stress relievers aren't enough to stop bruxism. If your child has trouble sleeping or is acting differently than usual, your dentist or doctor may suggest further evaluation. This can help find the cause of the stress and a proper course of treatment.

Because some bruxism is a child's natural reaction to growth and development, most cases can't be prevented. Stress-induced bruxism can be avoided, though. So talk with kids regularly about their feelings and help them deal with stress. Taking kids for routine dental visits can help find and treat bruxism.

Story source: Kenneth H. Hirsch, DDS, http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/bruxism.html#

Your Child

Kid’s Head Injury Linked to Long Term Attention Problems

1:45

Even mild brain injuries may cause children to have momentary gaps in attention long after an accident occurs, according to a new study.

The study of 6- to 13-year-olds found these attention lapses led to lower behavior and intelligence ratings by their parents and teachers.

"Parents, teachers and doctors should be aware that attention impairment after traumatic brain injury can manifest as very short lapses in focus, causing children to be slower," said study researcher Marsh Konigs, a doctoral candidate at VU University Amsterdam in the Netherlands.

This loss of focus was apparent even when brain scans showed no obvious damage, the researchers said.

The study’s results are being released as schools gear up for a new academic year combined with some sports programs that can put children at risk for head injuries.

Traumatic brain injury can occur from a blow to the head caused by a fall, traffic accident, and assault or sports injury.

Concussion is one type of traumatic brain injury. In 2009, more than 248,000 teens and children were treated in U.S. emergency rooms for sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries or concussions, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Here’s how the study was conducted.  Researchers compared 113 children who had been hospitalized with a traumatic brain injury with 53 children who had a trauma injury not involving the head. The injuries, which ranged from mild to severe, occurred more than 18 months earlier on average.

The researchers tested mental functioning and evaluated questionnaires completed by parents and teachers at least two months after the injuries.

The head-injured group had slower processing speed, the researchers found. And their attention lapses were longer than those noted in the other children. But unlike other research, no differences were reported in other types of attention, such as executive attention -- the ability to resolve conflict between competing responses.

As is typical with most studies, the results do not prove a cause and effect relationship, but an association.

The take-home message from this study is that even mild head injury can lead to problems, said Dr. Andrew Adesman, chief of developmental and behavioral pediatrics at Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York in New Hyde Park, N.Y. He was not involved with the research.

"This study provides further evidence of the importance of trying to minimize brain trauma, since even when there is no visible damage on CAT scans or MRIs, there can still be a significant adverse effect on attention span and behavior," Adesman said.

This research underscores the need to protect children from head injuries through proper supervision, consistent use of child car seats and seat belts, as well as headgear when bike riding and playing contact sports, he added.

The study was published in the journal Pediatrics.

More information on brain injury in children can be found at the Brain Injury Association of America’s website, http://www.biausa.org/brain-injury-children.htm.

Source: Kathleen Doheny,  http://consumer.healthday.com/cognitive-health-information-26/brain-health-news-80/head-injury-may-trigger-attention-issues-in-kids-701821.html

Your Child

How Much Pizza is Too Much?

2:00

Just about everyone loves pizza. These days, there are enough specialty toppings to satisfy even the pickiest of eaters. So, it’s understandable that people don’t like to hear or read anything negative about America’s favorite fast food.

 But… and where pizza is concerned, there is always a but… kids that consume too much pizza – notice I said too much not any- are not only more likely to pack on the extra pounds, but consume more fat and sodium than is recommended for healthy diets.

Researchers behind a new study from the Health Policy Center at the Institute of Health Research and Policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), examined dietary recall data from children and adolescents aged 2-19 who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003 and 2010.

During those years, children between the ages of 2 and 11 took in fewer calories from pizza by 25 percent. Among teenagers, who actually ate more pizza than the younger group, there was also a decline in intake calories from pizza.  Good news so far.

However, looking at the calorie intake from pizza during 2009 to 2010, pizza made up 22% of the total calorie intake among children and 26% of adolescents' calorie intake on the days when it was eaten.

The younger children took in an additional 84 calories, 3 g of saturated fat and 134 mg of sodium on days that they ate pizza, compared with pizza-free days.

For adolescents the count was substantially higher. Pizza days meant an extra 230 calories, 5 g of saturated fat and 484 mg of sodium - 24% and 21% of their recommended daily intake. Not so good news.

Pizza as a snack between meals had the biggest impact on the children’s diet. Children took in an extra 202 calories and teens an extra 365 calories in addition to their regular meals. Ouch.

It’s really no surprise that kids (and adults) rarely eat less of other foods during pizza snack days to compensate for the extra calories, fat and sodium – we just usually don’t.

Researchers also noted that calorie intake from school cafeterias was about the same on pizza days as it was on non-pizza days. They believe the reason for that is that most school cafeteria food is similarly high in calories. In 2015, that may be changing with new school food policies. Let’s hope so anyway.

Pizza in and of itself isn’t necessarily a bad food choice-depending on where it comes from. Homemade pizza can be lower in calories, fat and sodium. You get to decide what kind of crust is used and can substitute lower fat and sodium ingredients to build your own healthier meal. Plus, it taste good!

Because of its huge influence on the diet of American youths, the authors suggest that pizza should be specifically addressed as part of nutritional counseling.

"Curbing pizza consumption alone isn't enough to significantly reduce the adverse dietary effects of pizza. It's a very common and convenient food, so improving the nutritional content of pizza, in addition to reducing the amount of pizza eaten, could help lessen its negative nutritional impact." Said lead author Lisa Powell, who is professor of health policy and administration in the UIC School of Public Health.

Typical fast-food pizza is packed with sodium, fat and calories. This study simply points out that it’s easy to overload on it because it’s convenient and not very expensive. But, it can have a devastating affect on kid’s health when not eaten sensibly. The extra fat, salt and calories add up to more weight, higher cholesterol, higher blood pressure and diabetes. Not anything you really want for your kids or yourself.

The study was recently published in the journal Pediatrics.

Source: David McNamee, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/288252.php

Your Child

Could More Dietary Fiber Reduce Food Allergies?

2:00

In the never–ending search for an answer as to why more Americans – from children to adults- are experiencing food allergies, several new studies suggest that the culprit could be too little fiber in our diets.  

According to the non-profit organization, Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE), 15 million Americans have food allergies. That’s a 50 percent increase from 1997 to 2011. About 90 percent of people with food allergies are allergic to one of eight types of foods; peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, eggs, milk, shellfish and fish. 

So, what is going on that so many people are suffering from food allergies, particularly children? That’s what researchers around the world are trying to find out.  Many studies are beginning to suggest that it’s not just one thing but a combination of factors.

A lack of dietary fiber in the diet may be one of those factors. The notion is based on the idea that bacteria in the gut have the enzymes needed to digest dietary fiber, and when these bacteria break down fiber, they produce substances that help to prevent an allergic response to foods, said Charles Mackay, an immunologist at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia.

So far, the research related to this idea has been done mainly in mice, and dietary factors are unlikely to be the sole explanation for why allergy rates have skyrocketed, researchers say. But if the results were to be replicated in human studies, they would suggest that promoting the growth of good gut bacteria could be one way to protect against, and possibly even reverse, certain allergies, researchers say.

The modern western diet, high in fat, sugar and refined carbs seems to produce a different kind of bacteria in the gut that may be liked to food allergies.  Fiber such as beans, whole grains, nuts, berries, vegetables and brown rice promote the growth of a class of bacteria called Clostridia, which break down fiber and are some of the biggest producers of byproducts called short-chain fatty acids.

In a 2011 study in the journal Nature, researchers found that these short-chain fatty acids normally prevent gut cells from becoming too permeable, and letting food particles, bacteria or other problematic compounds move into the blood.

An overabundance of antibiotic use may also be contributing to food allergies. Not only are people being over-prescribed, we may also be getting extra doses in some of our foods.

Antibiotics, which are widely used in agriculture and for treating ear infections in babies and toddlers, kill the bacteria in the gut. So the combination of antibiotics and low-fiber diets may be a "double whammy," that predisposes people to allergic responses, notes said Cathryn Nagler, a food allergy researcher at the University of Chicago.

The new findings also suggest a way to prevent, or possibly even reverse some allergies. For instance, allergy treatments could use probiotics that recolonize the gut with healthy forms of Clostridia, Nagler said.

In fact, in a small study published in January in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, showed that children with peanut allergies who received probiotics were able to eat the nut without having an allergic reaction, and their tolerance to peanuts persisted even after the treatment.

Many factors may contribute to the rise in food allergies, said Dr. Robert Wood, director of pediatric allergy and immunology at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center in Baltimore. Epidemiological studies have found that having pets, going to day care, having a sibling, being born vaginally and even washing dishes by hand can affect the risk of allergies.

As more and more research is being conducted on food allergies, a bigger picture is starting to emerge about possible causes. Pediatricians and family physicians are keeping a close eye on the new findings to better help their patients. Some of those findings are changing the way physicians are treating food allergies.

For years, doctors told parents of children at a high risk of developing allergies to wait until the children were 3 years old before giving them peanuts or other allergy-inducing foods, Wood said.

"We really thought we knew what we were doing, and it turns out it was 100 percent wrong," Wood said.

If your child suffers from food allergies, you might want to talk to your pediatrician or family doctor about adding more dietary fiber or probiotics to your child’s diet. However, it’s not recommended that you “experiment” on your own because some children’s health problems can be made worse from probiotic use or too much fiber. Be sure and check with your doctor first.

Sources: Tia Ghose, http://www.livescience.com/50046-fiber-reduce-allergies.html

http://www.foodallergy.org/facts-and-stats

Your Child

High Cholesterol Putting Kids at Risk for Heart Attack

2:00

Abnormally high cholesterol levels are putting American children at higher risk for a heart attack or stroke later in life. One in five kids has high cholesterol according to a review of 2011-2014 federal health data compiled by researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Overall, slightly more than 13 percent of kids had unhealthily low levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol -- the kind that actually might help clear out arteries. The CDC says just over 8 percent had too-high levels of other forms of cholesterol that are bad for arteries, and more than 7 percent had unhealthily high levels of "total" cholesterol.

Obesity was seen as a major contributing factor, the CDC said. For example, more than 43 percent of children who were obese had some form of abnormal cholesterol reading, compared to less than 14 percent of normal-weight children.

Not surprisingly, rates of abnormal cholesterol readings rose as kids aged. For example, while slightly more than 6 percent of children aged 6 to 8 had high levels of bad cholesterol, that number nearly doubled -- to 12 percent -- by the time kids were 16 to 19 years of age, the CDC said.

Knowing how obesity can impact the heart, cardiologists were not shocked by the findings.

"When one looks at the data it is clear that the obesity epidemic is responsible for a substantial portion of these abnormal cholesterol values," said Dr. Michael Pettei, who co-directs preventive cardiology at Cohen Children's Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y. "Approximately one-third of U.S. children and adolescents are either overweight or obese.

"Clearly, the American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) recommendations to screen all children for cholesterol status, and to take measures to prevent and manage obesity, are more appropriate than ever," he said.

Dr. Kevin Marzo, chief of cardiology at Winthrop-University Hospital in Mineola, N.Y., agreed.

"Abnormal cholesterol is a key modifiable risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke, in adulthood," he said. "This study confirms that preventive strategies must start in childhood, including healthy eating habits, regular exercise, and maintaining ideal body weight."

The AAP recommends that all children begin having their cholesterol checked between the ages of 9 and 11.

An acceptable total cholesterol level for a child is below 170 with LDL below 110. A borderline reading in total cholesterol is 170-199 with LDL between 110-129.  And a high classification in total cholesterol is above 200 with LDL above 130.

There may be other reasons a child can have high cholesterol such as diabetes, liver disease, kidney disease or an underactive thyroid. If an initial test shows high cholesterol, your pediatrician will check your child’s blood again at least 2 weeks later to confirm the results. If it is still high, the doctor will also determine if your child has an underlying condition.

Some children can also have high cholesterol that is passed down through families.  It’s called familial hypercholesterolemia and is an inherited condition that causes high levels of LDL cholesterol levels beginning at birth, and heart attacks at an early age. Any child with a family history of high cholesterol should begin having his or her levels in infancy.

The findings were published Dec. 10 as a Data Brief from the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics.

Sources: E.J. Mundell, http://consumer.healthday.com/vitamins-and-nutrition-information-27/high-cholesterol-health-news-359/one-in-five-u-s-kids-over-age-5-have-unhealthy-cholesterol-cdc-706032.html

https://www.healthychildren.org/English/healthy-living/nutrition/Pages/Cholesterol-Levels-in-Children-and-Adolescents.aspx

Your Toddler

Almost 60,000 Kids Treated Yearly for Accidental Medicine Poisoning

2:00

According to a new report issued by Safe Kids Worldwide, a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing unintentional childhood injuries, almost 60,000 U.S. children are accidently poisoned by medicines each year.

That's the equivalent of four busloads of children -- or one every nine minutes -- arriving at emergency departments every day because of medicine-related poisoning, according to Safe Kids Worldwide.

And nearly every minute each day a poison control center receives a call about a child who got into medicines, the report notes.

"We want parents and caregivers to remember that the first line of defense in preventing medicine poisoning is the family," Kate Carr, president and CEO of Safe Kids Worldwide, said in a news release from the group.

Since 1980, the amount of prescriptions filled has increased three-fold and consumers spend five times as much for over-the-counter drugs. Many families have numerous prescriptions in the home and Carr says parents and other adults need to be vigilant in protecting children from medication poisoning.

Safe Kids Worldwide has been instrumental in getting the word out about medication safety providing research, grants and media promotion. Carr says the efforts are paying off.

"Since Safe Kids and industry and government partners started getting the word out to parents about the importance of keeping kids safe around medicine, the number of ER visits has steadily declined. But there are still too many kids getting into medicine, so education needs to continue to be a priority for all," she added.

As you might suspect, curious toddlers are at the greatest risk for medicine poisoning. Kids aged 1 to 2 years account for 70 percent of ER visits for medicine poisoning, the report said. Parents and caregivers of toddlers need to be sure to store medicine where toddlers cannot reach them, Carr said.

Since medicines are kept in all sorts of places, sometimes they are left in spots that a child can easily access such as in purses, on tables and counters, in refrigerators, daily medicine boxes and in accessible cabinets.

These days, many children are being raised or cared for by grandparents. The report suggests, that grandparents may need safety reminders. In an analysis of ER data on children poisoned by medicines, the drugs belonged to grandparents in 48 percent of cases and to parents in 38 percent of cases.

"Look around your home, and in your purses, to make sure all medicine is out of reach of children," Carr explained.

The Safe Kids Worldwide website offers these tips for protecting children from accidental medicine poisoning:

·      Put all medicine up and away and out of sight. In 86% of emergency department visits for medicine poisoning, the child got into medicine belonging to a parent or grandparent.

·      Consider places where kids get into medicine. Kids get into medication in all sorts of places, like in purses and nightstands. Place purses and bags in high locations, and avoid leaving medicine on a nightstand or dresser. In 2 out of 3 emergency room visits for medicine poisoning, the medicine was left within reach of a child.

·      Consider products you might not think about as medicine. Health products such as vitamins, diaper rash creams, eye drops and even hand sanitizer can be harmful if kids get into them. Store these items up, away and out of sight, just as you would traditional medicine.

·      Only use the dosing device that comes with the medicine. Kitchen spoons aren’t all the same, and a teaspoon or tablespoon used for cooking won’t measure the same amount of medicine as a dosing device.

·      Write clear instructions for caregivers about your child’s medicine. When other caregivers are giving your child medicine, they need to know what medicine to give, how much to give and when to give it. Using a medicine schedule can help with communication between caregivers.  

·      Save the Poison Help line in your phone: 1-800-222-1222. Put the toll-free number for the Poison Control Center into your home and cell phones. You can also put the number on your refrigerator or another place in your home where babysitters and caregivers can see it. And remember, the Poison Help line is not just for emergencies, you can call with questions about how to take or give medicine.

Story source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/public-health-information-30/poisons-health-news-537/60-000-kids-rushed-to-ers-for-accidental-medication-poisoning-each-year-709176.html

https://www.safekids.org

Your Child

Back-To-School Immunizations

2:30

Is your child up-to-date on his or her immunizations for the new school year?

Each state has its own set of immunization requirements, but there are a few that are found in nearly all states. Make sure you know which are required for your child’s school.

The typical list includes:

DTaP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis)

·      Most children have five dosages by the time they start school, including one after their fourth birthday

·      Remember that children also need a tetanus booster when they are around 11 to 12 years old

·      The Tdap vaccine (Boostrix or Adacel) is recommended for teens and adults to protect them from pertussis in 2006 and replaces the previous Td vaccine that only worked against tetanus and diphtheria

MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella)

·      Two doses of MMR are usually required by school entry. In the past, the second dose was given when a child was either 4 to 6 years old or 12 years old. Now, it is usually given earlier, but some older children may not have gotten two doses yet.

·      Having two doses of MMR is important in this age of measles outbreaks.

IVP (Polio)

·      Most children have four or five dosages by the time they start school, including one after their fourth birthday.

Varivax (Varicella, or the Chickenpox vaccine)

·      Your older child will need the chickenpox shot if he has not already had chickenpox in the past. Most toddlers young receive it when they are 12 to 18 months old. Although younger children used to be given just one dose, it is now required that kids get a chickenpox booster shot when they are 4 to 6 years old. Older kids should get their booster at their next well child visit or as soon as they can so that they don't get chickenpox.

Hepatitis B

·      A series of three shots that is now started in infancy. Older children are usually caught up by 12 years of age if they haven't received this vaccine yet.

Hepatitis A

·      A set of two shots for children over 12 months years of age. All infants and toddlers are now getting this shot as a part of the routine childhood immunization schedule, but there is currently no plan for routine catch-up immunization of all unimmunized 2- to 18-year-old children, unless they live in a high-risk area with an existing hepatitis A immunization program or if the kids are themselves high risk. Kids are high risk for example, if they travel to developing countries, abuse drugs, have clotting-factor disorders, or chronic liver disease, etc.

·      Hepatitis A vaccine is required to attend preschool in many parts of the United States.

Hib

·      While required for school entry, children do not usually receive this shot after they are five years of age, so children who have missed this shot don't usually need to get caught up before school starts if they are older than 5 years old.

Prevnar

·      A vaccine that can help to prevent infections by the pneumococcal bacteria, which is a common cause of blood infections, meningitis and ear infections in children.

·      Prevnar is typically given between the ages of two months and five years, and isn't approved for older kids, so your older child wouldn't need this shot if he didn't get it when he was younger. It is often required to attend preschool though.

·      A newer version of Prevnar, which can provide coverage against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacteria, is approved and replaces the older version (Prevnar 7) in 2010, which means that many older children in preschool may need another dose of Prevnar 13, even if they finished the Prevnar 7 series.

·      Another version of this vaccine is available for certain older high-risk children though, including kids with immune system problems, although that wouldn't be required for school.

Meningococcal vaccine

·      Menactra and Menveo, the newest versions of the meningococcal vaccine, is now recommended for children who are 11 to 12 years old, with a booster dose when they are 15 to 18 years old.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all school age children stay up-to-date on all their immunizations.

As well as the vaccines recommended above, AAP includes a few others in its 2016 list. They include:

Influenza

·      Administer influenza vaccine annually to all children beginning at age 6 months. For most healthy, non-pregnant persons aged 2 through 49 years, either LAIV or IIV may be used. However, LAIV should NOT be administered to some persons, including 1) persons who have experienced severe allergic reactions to LAIV, any of its components, or to a previous dose of any other influenza vaccine; 2) children 2 through 17 years receiving aspirin or aspirin-containing products; 3) persons who are allergic to eggs; 4) pregnant women; 5) immunosuppressed persons; 6) children 2 through 4 years of age with asthma or who had wheezing in the past 12 months; or 7) persons who have taken influenza antiviral medications in the previous 48 hours.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

·      Administer a 3-dose series of HPV vaccine on a schedule of 0, 1-2, and 6 months to all adolescents aged 11 through 12 years. 9vHPV, 4vHPV or 2vHPV may be used for females, and only 9vHPV or 4vHPV may be used for males.

·      The vaccine series may be started at age 9 years,

·      Administer the second dose 1 to 2 months after the first dose (minimum interval of 4 weeks), administer the third dose 16 weeks after the second dose (minimum interval of 12 weeks) and 24 weeks after the first dose.

·      Administer HPV vaccine beginning at age 9 years to children and youth with any history of sexual abuse or assault who have not initiated or completed the 3-dose series.

Many states have added an “opt out” choice for parents on some vaccines but not all. For the health and safety of all children, the AAP recommends that parents follow each state’s immunizations requirements and not opt out unless there is a medical necessity.

Story sources: Vincent Iannelli, MD, https://www.verywell.com/school-immunization-requirements-2633240

http://redbook.solutions.aap.org/selfserve/ssPage.aspx?SelfServeContentId=Immunization_Schedules

 

 

Your Child

Special Diet for Kids With Crohn Disease, Colitis

1:45

A special diet may help children with Chron disease and ulcerative colitis without the use of medications, according to a new study.

Chron disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that was once considered rare in children. It is now recognized as one of the most important chronic diseases that affect children and teens with approximately 20-30 percent of all patients with Chron presenting symptoms when they are younger than 20 years old.

The diet includes non-processed foods, such as fruits, vegetables, meats and nuts. Over 12 weeks, the diet appeared to ease all signs of these inflammatory bowel diseases in eight of the 10 affected children, researchers report.

"The study shows that without other intervention, other changes, we can improve individuals' clinical as well as laboratory markers," said study author Dr. David Suskind. He's a professor of pediatrics and director of clinical gastroenterology at Seattle Children's Hospital.

"I'm not surprised," Suskind added, "primarily because preliminary studies ... opened our eyes to the idea that diet had an impact."

Standard treatment for Chron disease and ulcerative colitis usually includes steroids and other immune-suppressing drugs. With severe symptoms, surgery is sometimes required to remove portions of the intestine.

Suskind and his team put the 10 patients, between the ages of 10 and 17, on a special diet. The diet is known as the specific carbohydrate diet. No other measures were used to treat the study participants' active Crohn's or ulcerative colitis.

The diet removes grains, most dairy products, and processed foods and sugars, except for honey. Those on the specific carbohydrate diet can eat nutrient-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, meats and nuts.

Suskind noted that scientists aren’t sure why the diet seems to work, but there are several theories.

First, it's known that diet affects the gut microbiome -- the array of bacteria in the digestive tract contributing to digestion and underlying the immune system .

"One of the likely reasons why dietary therapy works is it shifts the microbiome from being pro-inflammatory to non-inflammatory," he said.

"Another potential [reason] is there are a lot of additives in the foods we eat that can have an effect on the lining of the intestines. This diet takes out things deleterious to the mucus lining in the intestinal tract," Suskind said.

Other IBD researchers are praising the small study.

Dr. James Lewis is chief scientist for the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America's IBD Plexus Program. He's helping lead national research in progress comparing the effectiveness of the specific carbohydrate diet to the so-called Mediterranean diet in inducing remission in patients with Crohn's disease. The Mediterranean diet stresses eating mostly plant-based foods.

Lewis praised Suskind's new study, noting that despite its small size, it adds to growing research suggesting a potential therapeutic benefit from the specific carbohydrate diet to inflammatory bowel patients.

"Even our most effective [standard] therapies leave a proportion of patients with persistently active disease or the inability to completely heal the intestine," Lewis said. "Because of that alone, we need other therapeutic approaches."

The study was published in the recent edition of the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology.

Story sources: Maureen Salamon, http://www.webmd.com/ibd-crohns-disease/crohns-disease/news/20170109/special-diet-may-be-boon-for-kids-with-crohns-colitis#1

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/928288-overview

 

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