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Your Child

Concussions May Have Long Term Impact on Kids’ Mental Health

1:45

There’s been a tremendous amount of information about concussions in the news lately. One question many parents want answered is, if my child suffers a concussion could it have an impact on his or her mental, physical or intellectual health for the rest of their lives?

The answer is yes according to a recent study, and for kids who have had more than one concussion; the risks are even higher that they will suffer repercussions into adulthood.

A report released by the health insurer, Blue Cross Blue Shield, said diagnosed concussions among people under the age of 20 climbed 71 percent between 2010 and 2015. Part of that increase may be attributed to an improved awareness of the dangers of concussions, prompting coaches and parents to seek medical attention for athletes and kids.  However, the high numbers also suggest that more children are experiencing head injuries than in the past.

The data also showed that twice as many boys were diagnosed with concussion than girls, although the rates for girls increased by 119 percent during the dates examined.

While more general information about concussion is becoming abundant, the effects on the health of children into adulthood have largely remained unknown.

For the new study looking into the long-term effects, multiple data sources were reviewed including a valuable collection of records from Sweden.

A plethora of linked registries in that nation contain information about people’s medical and hospital visits, socioeconomic status, education, physical disabilities and other aspects of their lives, says Dr. Seena Fazel, a professor of forensic psychiatry at Oxford and the new study’s senior author. The registries also allow researchers to compile information about family members.

In this case, the scientists concentrated on all Swedes born between 1973 and 1985 and looked for those who had experienced a head injury of some kind before the age of 25. More than 104,000 people qualified. Researched reviewed data about these people for 40 years.

Along with each patient, researchers also compiled similar medical records for a sibling who had not been diagnosed with a head injury and compared the results between family members and the total population of the country.

The results of the study were unsettling. They found that young people who had experienced a single diagnosed concussion were more likely to be receiving medical disability payments as adults, to have at some point sought mental health care, were less likely to have graduated from high school or attended college and were twice as prone to die prematurely than their uninjured sibling.

If the patient had experienced more than one concussion while young or if the brain injury was more severe than a concussion, the possibility of physical and psychological problems during adulthood increased.

While the results of the study were disconcerting, there was also good news in the report. Not everyone who had a concussion or brain injury as a child or teenager experienced mental or intellectual problems -related to the brain injury - as an adult.

“The majority of individuals who had diagnoses of brain injury in our study did not experience adverse outcomes,” Dr. Fazel says.

Unfortunately, it is impossible at the moment to identify which children or teenagers who experience head trauma may be most at risk of struggling in later life and which will instead recover without apparent complications, he says.

The overall message from this study is that all steps should be taken to prevent childhood head injuries.

If a young person does suffer head trauma, he continues, more and longer-lasting monitoring is also probably a good idea. Such monitoring may be especially important if the child shows any signs of “a decline in psychosocial performance,” Dr. Fazel says, such as a drop in grades or a change, even subtle, in personality. A neurologist can provide useful assessments, and regular follow-up neurological assessments may need to be continued, even into adulthood.

The study was published online in the journal PLOS Medicine.

 Story source: Gretchen Reynolds, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/05/well/move/a-single-concussion-may-have-lasting-impact.html?WT.mc_id=SmartBriefs-Newsletter&WT.mc_ev=click&ad-keywords=smartbriefsnl

Parenting

Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

2:00

This is the time of year when accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning happens the most. For families in cold climates or dealing with disasters such as flooding, tornados or loss of electricity for long periods of time, gasoline powered generators or heaters can be a godsend. But they also require special care to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.

Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, tasteless toxic gas that is a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings accounted for approximately 400 to 500 deaths (all ages) and more than 15,000 emergency department visits in the United States annually according to the AAP Council on Environmental Health.

Proper installation and maintenance for the use of combustion appliances can help to reduce excessive carbon monoxide emissions along with carbon monoxide detectors.

Many non-fires related CO poisonings come from automobiles left running in a closed garage- sending toxic fumes into the house.

Other ways carbon monoxide poisoning occurs may surprise you. Improperly maintained chimneys and flues can crack and leave a buildup that causes problems with venting CO fumes. Wood stoves that are not fitted correctly can leak CO into living rooms and bedrooms. Kerosene heaters reduce oxygen in rooms. They require good ventilation to operate safely. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide can be emitted from improper use of kerosene heaters. These fumes become toxic in large quantities and put vulnerable individuals at risk, such as pregnant women, asthmatics, people with cardiovascular disease, the elderly, and young children. Charcoal grills put off an enormous amount of CO; they should never be used indoors.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) offers guidance for protecting families from CO poisoning with these tips:

Fuel-Burning Appliances

•       Forced-air furnaces should be checked by a professional once a year or as recommended by the manufacturer. Pilot lights can produce carbon monoxide and should be kept in good working order.

•       All fuel-burning appliances (eg, gas water heaters, gas stoves, gas clothes dryers) should be checked professionally once a year or as recommended by the manufacturer.

•       Gas cooking stove tops and ovens should not be used for supplemental heat.

Fireplaces and Woodstoves

•       Fireplaces and woodstoves should be checked professionally once a year or as recommended by the manufacturer. Check to ensure the flue is open during operation. Proper use, inspection, and maintenance of vent-free fireplaces (and space heaters) are recommended.

Space Heaters

•       Fuel-burning space heaters should be checked professionally once a year or as recommended by the manufacturer.

•       Space heaters should be properly vented during use, according to the manufacturer’s specifications.

Barbecue Grills/Hibachis

•       Barbecue grills and hibachis should never be used indoors.

•       Barbecue grills and hibachis should never be used in poorly ventilated spaces such as garages, campers, and tents.

Automobiles/Other Motor Vehicles

•       Regular inspection and maintenance of the vehicle exhaust system are recommended. Many states have vehicle inspection programs to ensure this practice.

•       Never leave an automobile running in the garage or other enclosed space; Carbon monoxide can accumulate even when a garage door is open.

Generators/Other Fuel-Powered Equipment

•       Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations when operating generators and other fuel-powered equipment.

•       Never operate a generator indoors or near an open window when the generator is outdoors.

Boats

•       Be aware that carbon monoxide poisoning can mimic symptoms of seasickness.

•       Schedule regular engine and exhaust system maintenance.

•       Consider installing a carbon monoxide detector in the accommodation space on the boat.

Carbon monoxide poisoning can mimic other illnesses – so it’s good to be aware of the symptoms, especially if you have any of the heating sources or gasoline powered motors mentioned above.

Signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning may include:

  • Dull headache
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Shortness of breath
  • Confusion
  • Blurred vision
  • Loss of consciousness

The symptoms may be subtle, but the condition is life threatening. If you suspect CO poisoning, seek emergency medical care immediately and make sure your child is getting fresh air as soon as possible.

Story sources: https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/Children-and-Disasters/Pages/Protecting-Children-from-Carbon-Monoxide-Poisoning.aspx

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/carbon-monoxide/basics/definition/con-20025444

 

Your Child

Can Dogs Help Kids Be Less Anxious?

1:45

Scientific studies have already linked fewer allergies and asthma in kids that own dogs, now a new study says you can also add less anxiety to the list of benefits from man’s best friend.

Researchers say a new study shows kids who live in a home with a pet dog score far lower on clinical measures of anxiety.

Although the study was small, the results were not surprising. Researchers focused on 643 kids between 6 and 7. But the team at Bassett Medical Center in New York found that just 12 percent of children with pet dogs tested positive for clinical anxiety, compared to 21 percent of children without a dog.

"It may be that less anxious children have pet dogs or pet dogs make children less anxious," Dr. Anne Gadomski and colleagues wrote in the journal Preventing Chronic Disease.

Previous studies have also shown that adults benefit from owning a pet as well as kids. In fact, many health officials suggest that adults should consider getting a dog. Not only can they provide companionship but can encourage more exercise.

Gadomski acknowledged how special pets can be to a child by noting that, "Sometimes their first word is the name of their pet," she told NBC News. "There is a very strong bond between children and their pets."

What makes dogs such special pets for kids?  Godmski’s team said, "From a mental health standpoint, children aged 7 to 8 often ranked pets higher than humans as providers of comfort and self-esteem and as confidants," they wrote.

"Animal-assisted therapy with dogs affects children's mental health and developmental disorders by reducing anxiety and arousal or enhancing attachment," they added.

"Because dogs follow human communicative cues, they may be particularly effective agents for children's emotional development."

The researchers asked parents for specific details about what type of anxiety a child showed.

Pets seemed to help in several areas.

"Significant differences between groups were found for the separation anxiety component ('My child is afraid to be alone in the house') and social anxiety component ('My child is shy') favoring pet ownership," they wrote.

Most of the families in the study - 73 percent - had a pet of some kind. Most - 58 percent - had dogs. Families with pets may be more stable and may be more affluent, but the researchers suggest there's more to it than that.

"A pet dog can stimulate conversation, an ice-breaking effect that can alleviate social anxiety via a social catalyst effect," they wrote.

Other studies have also shown that playing or cuddling with a dog can release the bonding hormone oxytocin, and lower the stress hormone cortisol, they noted.

There’s already an abundance of research on dogs and families, which is one of the reasons Gadomski chose to look at the relationship between dogs and kids for this study.

However, she noted that cat lovers might also benefit from the same type of interaction.

If you’re interested in getting a dog as a pet for your family, there are several websites that offer a quiz to help families decide which breed may best be suited for them. Just search “best dog breeds for families.”

Shelters also have puppies and dogs that make wonderful pets.  Many of the older dogs are already house trained and socialized. Shelter staff can answer your questions about whether a particular dog that is up for adoption would be suitable for a family and small children.

Source: Maggie Fox, http://www.nbcnews.com/health/kids-health/heres-reason-get-puppy-kids-pets-have-less-anxiety-n469591

Image:http://www.popsugar.com/moms/Benefits-Dogs-Kids-36052085#photo-36052085

 

 

 

 

Your Baby

Pregnant? Exercise is Good For You!

2:00

For years, the prevailing thought has been – if you didn’t exercise before, during pregnancy wasn’t the time to start. That’s no longer the case says, Alejandro Lucia, a professor of exercise physiology at the European University of Madrid.

A group of researchers want women to know that when it comes to exercise, there is a strong consensus of benefit for both the mother and developing fetus.

"Within reason, with adequate cautions, it's important for [everyone] to get over this fear," said Lucia.

According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), which updated its recommendations in 2015, women without major medical or obstetric complications should get at least 20 to 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise — enough to get you moving, while still being able to carry on a conversation — on most days of the week.

Lucia noted that evidence now suggests that starting an exercise program while pregnant can provide health benefits to both the mother and the growing fetus. Obviously, though, if you're new to exercise, take it slowly — you can work up to that 20 or 30 minutes.

The authors of the study say physical activity can prevent excessive weight gain, which can complicate the pregnancy and contribute to obesity. A review of existing research published in 2015 by the Cochrane Library found "high-quality evidence" that exercise during pregnancy can help prevent gaining too much weight, and may possibly lower the likelihood of a cesarean section, breathing problems in newborns, maternal hypertension and a baby that is significantly bigger than average. And of course, exercise promotes general cardiovascular and muscular health.

Other health problems can be helped such as chronic high blood pressure, gestational diabetes and women who are overweight or obese. Researchers say women with these conditions should be encouraged to exercise.

However, there are some health conditions in pregnancy where exercise should be avoided. According to the ACOG guidelines, women should avoid aerobic exercise if they have significant heart disease, persistent bleeding in the second or third trimester, severe anemia and risk of premature labor, among other conditions. And certain symptoms, such as contractions or dizziness during exercise, should be checked out quickly.

The bottom line is that women need to make a plan with their physician, taking into account their exercise history, their health, and the risk of pregnancy complications, says James Pivarnik, a professor of kinesiology and epidemiology at Michigan State University. He wasn't an author of the viewpoint but has conducted research on exercise and pregnancy.

Moderation is the goal during any exercise program. Long distance running and heavy weight lifting are not recommended. ACOG also recommends against contact sports, hot yoga, and exercises done in the supine position, i.e. lying face up, starting in the second trimester.

There are always exceptions to the rule, particularly with women who are highly trained athletes before they become pregnant. These women should still form plan with their OB/GYN on how much and what kinds of exercises are safe for them.

Among the general population and pregnant women specifically, people will respond differently to an exercise program. "But we know if you do the kind of things they're talking about here, the odds are your risk will be lower," says. Pivarnik.

Story source: Katherine Hobson, http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/03/21/520951610/exercising-while-pregnant-is-almost-always-a-good-idea

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Your Teen

Why Do Teens Use E-Cigarettes?

2:00

Why do teenagers give e-cigarettes a try? Because these products are easy to obtain, not terribly expensive, come in lots of different flavors and their friends use them. All very adolescent associated reasons.

If they continue using e-cigarettes, it’s because of the low cost and the promise that they can help them quit smoking regular cigarettes, according to senior researcher Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin. She is a professor of psychiatry at Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Conn.

Teens who initially tried e-cigarettes because of their low cost had significantly stepped up their use of e-cigarettes by the time researchers checked in six months later.

In addition, teens who tried e-cigarettes to quit smoking were more than 14 times more likely to keep using e-cigarettes than those who did not consider this a reason to try the devices, the findings showed.

Unfortunately, researchers found that e-cigarettes did not help the kids quit smoking. Four out of five teens that were smokers, were still smoking regular cigarettes six months later even though they were using e-cigarettes to quit, the investigators found.

E-cigarettes don't produce tobacco smoke, but they do contain nicotine. And researchers fear they'll create a new generation of smokers, with kids hooked on nicotine turning to tobacco for a stronger fix, Krishnan-Sarin said.

"That is the huge public health debate," she said. "Are kids going to start with e-cigarettes and then move on to cigarettes? Is that going to be the start of nicotine addiction?”

As part of the study, Krishnan-Sarin and her colleagues’ surveyed 340 e-cigarette users in two middle schools and three high schools in 2013, asking them why they first tried e-cigarettes.

Most cited reasons for first trying e-cigarettes as curiosity (57 percent), good flavors (42 percent), use by friends (33 percent), healthier than cigarettes (26 percent), can be used anywhere (21 percent) and does not smell bad (21 percent).

Six months later, researchers checked in with the teens and asked if they were still vaping and if so, why. They then compared the answers to the teens’ reasons for continued use with their previous reasons for starting e-cigarettes.

Kids who cited the low cost of e-cigarettes or their potential help to quit smoking wound up vaping more days on average than those who cited other reasons, the study authors said.

Teens who cited low cost, used e-cigarettes two out of every three days during the previous month, and those who wanted to quit smoking wound up vaping nearly that often, according to the study results.

Other reasons also predicted continued use of e-cigarettes: they don't smell bad; they come in good flavors; friends use them; they can be used anywhere; they can be hidden from adults; and they are healthier than tobacco.

But for kids who kept using e-cigarettes, "the most robust predictors were the low cost and trying e-cigarettes to quit smoking," said lead researcher Krysten Bold, a postdoctoral fellow in psychiatry at Yale School of Medicine.

Krishnan-Sarin said these findings reveal several different means by which policymakers could make e-cigarettes less attractive to teenagers.

Earlier this year, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), announced new regulations for e-cigarettes. Anyone under 18 years of age cannot purchase them and they must show a photo I.D. if they appear to be younger than 27. Retailers cannot give out samples and cannot sell them in vending machines unless the machines are in adult-only facilities. These new rules went into effect August 8th.

The Food and Drug Administration will have to approve all e-cigarette products that have been available since February 2007. That means nearly every e-cigarette product on the market must go through an application process to deem whether it can continue to be sold.

However, the FDA did not address the issue of different flavors.

Federal officials also could ban the use of flavors in e-cigarettes, as has already been done in traditional cigarettes except for menthol, said Dr. Norman Edelman, senior scientific advisor for the American Lung Association.

"Despite recommendations from the American Lung Association and others, the final rule did not ban flavorings as they have in ordinary cigarettes," Edelman said. "We continue to believe all the measures that have been applied against ordinary cigarettes should be applied to e-cigarettes."

The study was published online in the journal Pediatrics.

Story sources: Dennis Thompson, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20160808/why-teens-choose-e-cigarettes

Aamer Madhini, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2016/08/07/e-cigarette-regulations-set-go-into-effect/88362926/

Your Child

Tips for Grandparents Caring for Grandkids

2:00

Summers often provide grandparents the opportunity to spend extra time with the grandkids. While parents continue their work schedule, grandpa and grandma lovingly spoil their little ones. Many grandparents are actually raising their grandkids or providing year-round part time care.

Grandparents are are more than just babysitters, they provide a unique generational connection.  Their stories and life experiences can provide a treasure trove of valuable links to the family’s past. Hard-earned wisdom can offer guidance when youngsters are searching for answers. They are unique.

If you’re a grandparent caring for your grandkids – God bless you! What a wonderful gift you are giving to your kids and their children. 

Now is a good time to educate yourself on the new medical discoveries made since you raised your own children by asking your grandchild's parents to share information.  The medical profession has learned a lot about having infants sleep safely on their backs and on safer over-the-counter medications for illnesses, as well as many other things. A child safety update can be enormously beneficial. 

It may have been a while since you’ve been in charge of a little one’s care; to help freshen up on child home safety, here is a list of safety recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics:

Nursery & Sleeping Area -

•       If you saved your own child's crib, stored in your attic or garage, per­haps awaiting the arrival of a grandchild someday, you should replace it with a new one. Guidelines for children's furniture and equipment have changed dramatically, and a crib that is more than a few years old will not meet today's safety standards. This is likely also true for other saved and aging furniture that could pose risks to children, such as an old playpen.

•       Buy a changing table, use your own bed, or even a towel on the floor to change the baby's diapers. As she gets a little older, and she becomes more likely to squirm, you may need a second person to help in changing her diaper.

•       Do not allow your grandchild to sleep in your bed.

•       Keep the diaper pail emptied.

Kitchen -

•       Put "kiddie locks" on the cabinets; to be extra safe, move unsafe cleansers and chemicals so they're completely out of reach.

•       Remove any dangling cords, such as those from the coffeepot or toaster.

•       Take extra precautions before giving your grandchild food prepared in microwave ovens. Microwaves can heat liquids and solids unevenly, and they may be mildly warm on the outside but very hot on the in­side.

Bathroom -

•       Store pills, inhalers, and other prescription or nonprescription medi­cations, as well as medical equipment, locked and out of the reach of your grandchild. Be especially vigilant that all medications of any kind are kept up and away from a child's reach and sight.

•       Put nonslip material in the bathtub to avoid dangerous falls.

•       If there are handles and bars in the bathtub for your own use, cover them with soft material if you are going to be bathing the baby there.

•       Never leave a child unattended in a tub or sink filled with water.

Baby Equipment Safety

•       Never leave your grandchild alone in a high chair or in an infant seat located in high places, such as a table or countertop.

•       Do not use baby walkers.

Toy Safety:

•       Buy new toys for your grandchild that has a variety of sounds, sights, and colors. Simple toys can be just as good. Remember, no matter how fancy the toys may be your own interac­tion and play with your grandchild are much more important.

•       Toys, CDs, and books should be age-appropriate and challenge chil­dren at their own developmental level.

•       Avoid toys with small parts that the baby could put into her mouth and swallow. Follow the recommendations on the package to find toys suitable for your grandchild's age.

•       Because toy boxes can be dangerous, keep them out of your home, or look for one without a top or lid.

Garage and Basements

•       Make sure that the automatic reversing mechanism on the garage door is operating.

•       Keep all garden chemicals and pesticides as well as tools in a locked cabinet and out of reach.

•       Make sure that freezers, refrigerator and washing machines are not accessible. 

These safety tips can help recharge your memory when it comes to caring for small children as well as offer some new ideas on making your home a safer place for them to visit.

Times have changed since your children were young. Your energy level may not be quite as high as it once was, so planning the day with rest breaks included can help you and the kids.

 While some things may have changed, love is still the universal ingredient that helps children thrive and grandparents have plenty of that!

Sources: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/at-home/Pages/A-Message-for-Grandparents-Keeping-Your-Grandchild-Safe-in-Your-Home.aspx

https://www.healthychildren.org/English/family-life/work-play/Pages/A-Message-for-Grandparents-Who-Provide-Childcare.aspx

 

 

Your Child

Different Ways for Kids to Handle Stress

2:00

If you’re alive (and of course, you are) then you’ve experienced some form of stress.

Stress can be minor, more like annoyances that add up. There’s mid-level stress that can give you a bad day, but doesn’t hang around much after that. Then there is chronic stress; the kind that can affect your health and wellbeing.  There’s also varying degrees of stress between those three layers.

Experiencing stress begins early in life and for some kids can be devastating, depending on the circumstances.

However, stress isn’t always a bad thing. It can also be a motivator or make you aware of your surroundings. It can help you find solutions to difficult problems. It is normal and even healthy for children to experience some stress, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). How well kids handle stress depends on how much support they have from others and strength inside them.

Stress cannot be totally eliminated, but it can be managed.

Sometimes medications are given to kids and adults to help reduce stress – but there are other methods that are definitely worth looking into.

Exercise:  Physical activity is a great stress reducer. The body not only benefits from exercise, but so does the brain. Studies show that it is very effective at reducing fatigue, improving alertness and concentration, and at enhancing overall cognitive function. This can be especially helpful when stress has depleted yours or your child’s energy or ability to concentrate.

Scientists have found that regular participation in aerobic exercise has been shown to decrease overall levels of tension, elevate and stabilize mood, improve sleep, and improve self-esteem. Even five minutes of aerobic exercise can stimulate anti-anxiety effects.

Yoga: Many children do yoga to get rid of stress, pain and health problems. Yoga uses breathing and body postures to connect the mind and the body. It also helps kids manage feelings and how they act, and yoga is good for kids with anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other mental health conditions, according to the AAP.

Yoga is actually good for the whole family. It’s a good way to connect with the body, mind and emotions while sharing some peaceful time together.

Clinical hypnosis: Hypnosis can help children with irritable bowel syndrome, abdominal pain, and anxiety before surgery and cancer. Not to be confused with the act that entertainers use to put people into a trance-like state; trained specialists help children through hypnosis in a medical setting. Kids are asked to tune out their surroundings to change their feelings about something.

Sometimes doctors use clinical hypnosis along with guided imagery. This therapy uses all of the senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch and movement.

Meditation: Children can improve their attention span and learn how to focus better with mediation.  Some schools have found that meditation helps reduce absences and negative behaviors and improves kids’ self-esteem. One study found that students in an urban school were less stressed out after participating in a school mindfulness meditation program.

The AAP has a 10-point “Personal Stress Plan” form that can be downloaded at (http://bit.ly/2aop7IR). It is a series of questions with options for personal development. The questions are a good way for parents and kids to talk about the impact stress is having and what they can do to manage it.

Most of the methods mentioned above for reducing stress, were once tagged as “alternative” medicine. Today, they are much more mainstream and are providing families with good options for reducing the stress in their lives.

Story sources: Trisha Korioth, http://www.aappublications.org/news/2016/08/22/PPMindBody08221616

https://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/related-illnesses/other-related-conditions/stress/physical-activity-reduces-st

 

Your Toddler

Tricycles Cause Almost 9500 Injuries a Year

2:00

The brightly colored, tripled wheeled tyke-bikes may appear pretty harmless, but tricycles injuries send thousands of children to the hospital every year according to a new study.

Researchers found that lacerations were the most common type of injury kids suffered.  

But in an indication that some kids might need more or better quality protective gear, researchers also estimated that about 30 percent of injuries were to the head and another 8 percent involved the elbow, noted lead study author Sean Bandzar.

“Head injuries in particular are very common with any kind of moving toy and that’s why we recommend helmets, and based on our findings I would also encourage parents to have kids wear elbow pads,” said Bandzar, a researcher at the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta.

Based on the 328 tricycle injuries reported by participating hospitals in 2012 and 2013, researchers estimated that there were about 9,340 injuries nationwide during the two-year study period.

The total included 2,767 injuries to the head and 767 at the elbow, as well as 1,880 accidents damaging the face, 954 hurting the mouth and 483 harming the lower arms, researchers estimated.

The study noted that on average, three year-olds were the typical age group injured and one to two-year olds, made-up slightly more than 50 percent of the cases.

Boys made up almost two-thirds of the cases.

With this age group, it came as no surprise that about 72 percent of the injures occurred at home.

There were a couple shortcomings of the study, the authors acknowledge in the journal Pediatrics, is that researchers lacked data on how accidents happened, whether kids wore helmets or other protective gear, what types of tricycles children rode and whether adults were present.

It’s also possible that the study didn’t have data on enough accidents to draw broad conclusions about tricycle injuries nationwide, said Dr. Gary Smith, president of the Child Injury Prevention Alliance and a professor of Pediatrics, Emergency Medicine and Epidemiology at The Ohio State University in Columbus.

“Tricycles are safe, especially if a few simple steps are taken to prevent injuries,” Smith, who wasn’t involved in the study, he told Rueters by email.

Children should always wear helmets any time they are on wheels above a hard surface – including tricycles, skateboards, scooters, skates and bicycles, Smith said. Tricycle riders in particular should only ride in areas separated from cars, and when parents can keep a close eye on them.

“Tricycles are somewhat riskier than other toys children use but that doesn’t mean they are highly risky toys,” said David Schwebel, a researcher at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

While Schwebel, who wasn’t involved in the study, echoed the need for parental supervision, he also stressed that tricycles can be good for kids.

“Tricycles are valuable tools to help children develop critical gross motor skills like balance, coordination and strength,” Schwebel said by email. “Any tricycle, when used carefully in a supervised situation, is likely to be a positive activity for children.”

Source: Lisa Rapaport, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/14/us-health-children-tricycle-injuries-idUSKCN0RE1TQ20150914

 

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