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Your Teen

Amateur Athletes May Be at Greater Risk For CTE

1:45

Former NFL player and sportscaster, Frank Gilford, passed away in August. Not only was he well known for his on and off the field talents, but his name suddenly became associated with a terrible brain disease that is becoming all too common among former athletes, chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE. Gilford’s family said although he died from natural causes he also suffered from the debilitating effects of CTE which can affect thinking, memory, behavior and a person’s mood. His family decided to have his brain studied in hopes of shedding some light on the link between football and traumatic brain injury.  

A new study suggests that an increase of risk for CTE can begin much earlier in life for those who play contact sports where concussions and head trauma are common.

Researchers analyzed the brains of 66 men who had donated their organs to the Mayo Clinic Brain Bank and participated in sports such as football, rugby, wrestling, boxing and basketball while in school. Their brains were compared to the brains of 198 people, including 66 women, who never played contact sports.

CTE was found in the brains of a third of the men who played amateur contact sports. But no sign of the disease was detected in the brains of those who never played contact sports, the researchers said.

"The 32 percent of CTE we found in our brain bank is surprisingly high for the frequency of neurodegenerative pathology within the general population," wrote study author Kevin Bieniek, a pre-doctoral student in Mayo Graduate School's Neurobiology of Disease program.

"If one in three individuals who participate in a contact sport goes on to develop CTE pathology, this could present a real challenge down the road," Bieniek said.

Dr. Dennis Dickson, senior study author and neuropathologist at Mayo Clinic, noted that this study is the first to use newly developed government criteria to diagnose CTE in nonprofessional athletes.

"The frequency with which he [Bieniek] found CTE pathology in former [amateur] athletes exposed to contact sports was surprising," Dickson said. "It is pathology that had gone previously unrecognized."

Some individuals may be at an even greater risk of developing CTE if they have a genetic marker. Researchers have found two genetic markers that may affect the possibility of developing CTE.

"These markers need to be further studied in a larger group of CTE cases, but they could be very important in determining whether an individual is at greater risk of developing these brain changes," Bieniek said.

"The purpose of our study is not to discourage children and adults from participating in sports because we believe the mental and physical health benefits are great," he noted.

"It is vital that people use caution when it comes to protecting the head. Through CTE awareness, greater emphasis will be placed on making contact sports safer, with better protective equipment and fewer head-to-head contacts," Bieniek concluded.

The study was published in the December issue of journal Acta Neuropathologica.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/cognitive-health-information-26/concussions-news-733/playing-contact-sports-in-youth-may-raise-risk-for-degenerative-brain-disease-705847.html

Daily Dose

E-Cigarettes

1:30 to read

E- cigarettes which were a relatively obscure curiosity only 5 years ago are now available at not only “vape shops” but are also easy found at gas stations and pharmacies and the e-cigarette market has exploded. Unfortunately,  with the increased availability of e- cigarettes, there has been a steady rise in adolescent e-cigarette use (vaping).  

 

The Surgeon General stated, “exposing the developing brain to nicotine has been shown to alter its structure and function in a way that introduces long-lasting vulnerability for addiction to nicotine and other substances of abuse”. Yearly studies in high school students about their use of e-cigarettes showed that the percentage of students reporting e-cigarette use in the past 30 days went from 1.5% in 2011 to 16% in 2015.  The use of e-cigarettes by teens is becoming a major public health issue.

 

In a study recently reported in JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), 10th grade students were surveyed in the Los Angeles public schools and found that about 37% of 10th graders have used e-cigarettes. In the same study it was reported that “teens who vaped frequently were about 10 times more likely to become regular smokers six months later, compared to teens who never vaped”. Additionally, “20% of the regular e-cig users transitioned into frequent smokers, while less than 1% of kids who had never vaped smoked cigarettes at follow-up”. It would seem from this and other studies that e-cigarettes may serve as a “gateway” to smoking cigarettes.

 

Those teens who were more frequent “vapers” might sensitize their brain to the addictive effects of nicotine and find even more “pleasure” when they start using cigarettes and may progress to adult smokers.

 

The FDA published its “deeming” rule and regulatory authority over e-cigarettes in May of 2016, and banned the sale of e-cigarettes to minors, as well as requiring warning labels on e-cigs. But the FDA did not ban e-cigarette TV ads, nor did it address the role of flavoring in attracting youths to use e-cigarettes.  (flavors such as cotton candy and gummy bear - really targeting teens) . Youth oriented advertising, not only on TV, but in stores and on the internet must be addressed as well, as studies again show that greater exposure to ads is associated with higher odds of e-cigarette use. 

 

So…once again parents  and pediatricians)  need to be discussing the use of e-cigarettes, “vaping” and life long risk for nicotine addiction.   

Your Child

Different Ways for Kids to Handle Stress

2:00

If you’re alive (and of course, you are) then you’ve experienced some form of stress.

Stress can be minor, more like annoyances that add up. There’s mid-level stress that can give you a bad day, but doesn’t hang around much after that. Then there is chronic stress; the kind that can affect your health and wellbeing.  There’s also varying degrees of stress between those three layers.

Experiencing stress begins early in life and for some kids can be devastating, depending on the circumstances.

However, stress isn’t always a bad thing. It can also be a motivator or make you aware of your surroundings. It can help you find solutions to difficult problems. It is normal and even healthy for children to experience some stress, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). How well kids handle stress depends on how much support they have from others and strength inside them.

Stress cannot be totally eliminated, but it can be managed.

Sometimes medications are given to kids and adults to help reduce stress – but there are other methods that are definitely worth looking into.

Exercise:  Physical activity is a great stress reducer. The body not only benefits from exercise, but so does the brain. Studies show that it is very effective at reducing fatigue, improving alertness and concentration, and at enhancing overall cognitive function. This can be especially helpful when stress has depleted yours or your child’s energy or ability to concentrate.

Scientists have found that regular participation in aerobic exercise has been shown to decrease overall levels of tension, elevate and stabilize mood, improve sleep, and improve self-esteem. Even five minutes of aerobic exercise can stimulate anti-anxiety effects.

Yoga: Many children do yoga to get rid of stress, pain and health problems. Yoga uses breathing and body postures to connect the mind and the body. It also helps kids manage feelings and how they act, and yoga is good for kids with anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other mental health conditions, according to the AAP.

Yoga is actually good for the whole family. It’s a good way to connect with the body, mind and emotions while sharing some peaceful time together.

Clinical hypnosis: Hypnosis can help children with irritable bowel syndrome, abdominal pain, and anxiety before surgery and cancer. Not to be confused with the act that entertainers use to put people into a trance-like state; trained specialists help children through hypnosis in a medical setting. Kids are asked to tune out their surroundings to change their feelings about something.

Sometimes doctors use clinical hypnosis along with guided imagery. This therapy uses all of the senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch and movement.

Meditation: Children can improve their attention span and learn how to focus better with mediation.  Some schools have found that meditation helps reduce absences and negative behaviors and improves kids’ self-esteem. One study found that students in an urban school were less stressed out after participating in a school mindfulness meditation program.

The AAP has a 10-point “Personal Stress Plan” form that can be downloaded at (http://bit.ly/2aop7IR). It is a series of questions with options for personal development. The questions are a good way for parents and kids to talk about the impact stress is having and what they can do to manage it.

Most of the methods mentioned above for reducing stress, were once tagged as “alternative” medicine. Today, they are much more mainstream and are providing families with good options for reducing the stress in their lives.

Story sources: Trisha Korioth, http://www.aappublications.org/news/2016/08/22/PPMindBody08221616

https://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/related-illnesses/other-related-conditions/stress/physical-activity-reduces-st

 

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Childhood Obesity

Childhood Obesity & Weight Management

Your Baby

Does Your Baby Spit Up A Lot?

1:30

About half of infants spit up on a regular basis, and usually it’s not an indication that there’s a medical problem. More than likely, your little one has either more food in his or her tummy than it can hold or they have taken in too much air with the breast milk or formula. 

Watching their newborn spit up frequently can be kind of scary for new parents but experts agree that for the most part, there’s nothing to worry about- it’s normal.

"Seventy percent of infants under 3 months will spit up three times a day, and it's even perfectly normal for them to be spitting up as often as 10 or 12 times," says William Byrne, MD, chief of pediatric gastroenterology at Doernbecher Children's Hospital, in Portland, Oregon.

The most common reason is that the muscle at the bottom of the esophagus, which opens and closes to let food into the stomach, is still very weak at this age -- so it's easy for stomach contents to escape and come back up. Your baby is most likely to spit up after a feeding, but this can also happen when she cries or coughs forcefully.

By 6 months babies have mostly outgrown spitting up especially when they start eating more solid foods and sitting up.

There are things you can do to help reduce baby’s spitting up. Start by making sure you’re not overfeeding your baby. If breastfeeding, check to see if your infant is latched on correctly so that less air goes down with the milk.

If she's formula-fed, consider using a product that reduces bottle-induced gas, such as a bottle with liners that collapse as your baby sucks. If your baby is 4 months or older and your pediatrician approves, you can try thickening the formula to help it sit better in his stomach (mix in a tablespoon of rice cereal for every 4 ounces of formula).

Keep your baby in an upright position and as still as possible for at least 30 minutes following each feeding so that the food can travel out of the stomach and into the small intestine.

You can reduce spitting up by burping your baby after every 1 to 2 ounces or 5 to 10 minutes of feeding. If you don’t get a burp within a few minutes, then baby probably just doesn’t need to burp.

There are times when spitting up can indicate that there is a medical problem. It’s normal for infants to experience gastroesophageal reflux (GER), usually referred to as reflux. However, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD is different. GERD is a more serious condition that can cause a baby a lot of pain. If your baby won't eat, isn't gaining weight, is extremely irritable, suffers from forceful projectile vomiting, or develops respiratory problems from aspirating food, he may have GERD.

If your baby is having symptoms of GERD take him or her to your pediatrician for a true diagnosis. Your doctor will be able to recommend the correct treatment.

If your newborn is spitting up frequently, don’t panic- it’s normal. Just keep those washcloths and burping pads handy to protect your clothing!

Sources: Parents Magazine, http://www.parents.com/baby/feeding/problems/spit-up-faqs/

http://consumer.healthday.com/vitamins-and-nutrition-information-27/food-and-nutrition-news-316/when-babies-spit-up-don-t-panic-696541.html

http://www.babycenter.com/0_why-babies-spit-up_1765.bc?page=1

Parenting

Calming Kid’s Pre-Surgery Anxiety: iPads or Drugs?

1:00

Once you think about it, it makes a lot of sense; a new study shows that iPads work as well as sedative drugs to calm anxious kids before surgery.

Researchers assessed 112 children between 4 and 10 years old in France who had day surgery requiring general anesthesia. Twenty minutes before receiving the anesthesia, 54 kids were given the sedative midazolam and 58 were handed an iPad to distract them.

Guess what they found. The anxiety level for both groups was about the same. However, iPads conferred none of the side effects of sedatives, the researchers said. Also, they said the kids given iPads were easier to anesthetize.

"Our study showed that child and parental anxiety before anesthesia are equally blunted by midazolam or use of the iPad," said Dr. Dominique Chassard and colleagues at Hospital Femme-Mere-Enfant in Bron, France. "However, the quality of induction of anesthesia, as well as parental satisfaction, were judged better in the iPad group."

As any parent knows, iPads and other tablets offer an endless amount of entertainment to help children relax. From music to cartoons to games, there are plenty of programs available to take a child’s mind off of the current situation.  It’s not surprising they would work to help alleviate anxiety before something as scary as surgery. 

The study was to be presented this week at the World Congress of Anesthesiologists meeting in Hong Kong. Researched presented at medical meetings is considered preliminary.

Story source: Robert Preidt, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20160830/ipads-calm-surgery-bound-kids-as-well-as-sedatives

 

Your Teen

Lithium Safe for Children, Teens with Bipolar Disorder

2:00

A new multicenter study says that lithium, a drug typically given only to adults, is safe and effective for children and adolescents who have bipolar disorder.

The study, led by a researcher at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center and published Oct. 12 in Pediatrics, affirms what clinicians who prescribe this drug have observed for years and suggests that doctors can now more confidently add lithium to the available treatments for this vulnerable population -- at least in the short term, the authors say.

Lithium is one of the oldest drugs for bipolar disorder, a chronic brain condition marked by spontaneous, seesawing bouts of abnormally high moods and depression. The drug's ability to stabilize mood extremes has been well established in adults.

The researchers point out that historically, children and women of childbearing age have generally been excluded from many clinical trials out of an abundance of caution. Some believe that while the intentions may have been good, being excluded in clinical studies may actually harm this population- leaving them without access to more effective treatments.

"Lithium is the grandfather of all treatments for bipolar disorder, but it has never been rigorously studied in children," says Robert Findling, M.D., M.B.A., a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and director of child and adolescent psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center.

Findling initiated the work while director of child and adolescent psychiatry at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.

Though medications used to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses are prescribed to treat bipolar disorder in children, Findling says, those drugs have been linked to substantial weight gain, a considerable medical and social drawback for young people that causes many to stop taking them.

Results from the study showed that the patients on lithium experienced far more significant improvement in their symptoms over eight weeks compared with those on the placebo. Some 47 percent of those on lithium scored in the range of "very much improved" or "much improved" on the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, a rating system commonly used to assess the efficacy of treatments in patients with mental disorders, compared to 21 percent of those on the placebo.

Unlike antipsychotic agents, such as risperidone or olanzapine, lithium treatment was not associated with significant weight gain, and none of the patients experienced serious side effects due to the lithium treatment.

Findling says the findings provide a scientific and reliable confirmation of lithium's efficacy and safety for children in the short term, offering evidence that doctors can use when deciding what medication to prescribe their pediatric patients with bipolar disorder. Further analyses are currently in progress to examine the long-term implications of lithium use, he adds. Areas of particular focus include evaluation of any potential side effects, such as weight gain, reduced kidney function or diminished thyroid function -- all important considerations, as those with bipolar disorder may need a lifetime of medication and behavioral therapies.

Bipolar disorder affects approximately 1 percent of teens and is the leading cause of disability in adolescence.

Source: Adapted Media Release, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/300847.php

 

Your Baby

Preparing for Twins or Triplets

1:45

The number of U.S. parents expecting twins and triplets has reached an all-time high according to the National Center for Health Statistics. Multiple births make up a small portion of births in general, but since 1980, multiples numbers have been on the rise.

The number of twins born in the U.S. has increased the most. Along with twice the cuteness comes twice the workload. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) offers parents of multiples some handy preparation tips:

Keep in mind that "multiples" are often born early and tend to be smaller than the average newborn. The AAP says parents may need to visit with their pediatrician more often than usual and reach out for help with feeding concerns or strategies.

And then there are the diapers- lots and lots of diapers! Go ahead and start purchasing your diapers ahead of time. The more you have stocked away before your little ones are born, the less worries you’ll have about running out when you need them most. Also, you’ll be able to gage about how many you’ll need when you start shopping again.

Having multiples also means fitting more safety seats into the car, more clothing, more food and possibly even a larger home! Check out how well your home is going to work for a larger family and plan accordingly.

One of the most important things for parents to consider is making sure that each child has their own identity. Multiples may share everything, but they are individuals and should be raised as such, the AAP advises. Identical twins, in particular, may seem like a duo, and parents might be tempted to give them the same things and the same amount of attention. But even genetically identical children have different personalities, thoughts and emotions. The AAP urges parents to acknowledge and support their differences to help them become happy and secure individuals.

If you have other children, remember they need special attention too. It’s easy to overlook the older kids when the new kids on the block are demanding so much attention.

As multiples grow, they may form exclusive bonds and may even communicate in a way only they can understand. Sometimes, they become unwilling to seek out other friendships. Giving multiples some time apart can help them develop friendships and ensure that other siblings aren't left out, the academy says.

And efforts to encourage multiples to spend time apart should start early to head off resistance. Most elementary schools place multiples in separate classes, the news release noted. Parents who are concerned about preventing separation anxiety can turn to their pediatrician for advice.

Don’t be afraid to ask for help! Multiples demand a lot of attention. If your budget allows, hire someone to clean the house a few days a week. Grandparents, uncles and aunts, brothers and sisters may be willing to pitch in and give you some much needed down time or date time.  Don’t forget about your friends – while you may think it’s too much of an imposition, they may love being able to spend some quality time with your children – then turn them back over to you!

Take turns getting up at night for feedings and changings. Giving your spouse a few hours of uninterrupted sleep will do wonders for your relationship.

There’s a lot to prepare for when multiples are involved but the rewards are great. It may feel a little overwhelming at first, but eventually you will figure out a routine that works for everyone.

Story source: Mary Elizabeth Dallas, https://consumer.healthday.com/women-s-health-information-34/birth-health-news-61/having-twins-or-triplets-what-you-need-to-know-before-they-arrive-715653.html

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/12/11/twins-triplets-and-more-more-u-s-births-are-multiples-than-ever-before/

Your Child

Unhealthy TV Snack Ads Work on Preschoolers

1:30

Kids love snacks and advertisers count on that to sell products.  That’s why so many commercials on children’s TV shows promote snacks packed with sugar and salt. According to a new study, preschoolers who are exposed to these types of ads will eat more of those foods, even if they are not hungry.

The study, led by Jennifer Emond, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire, involved a small study of 60 children, 2 to 5 years old. Emond’s team monitored the kids as they watched a 14-minute segment of “Sesame Street.”

The preschoolers got a filling snack before the show, so they were not hungry, and then had unlimited access to snacks during it.

Some of the children watched the "Sesame Street" segment without food commercials, while others watched the show with commercials for a popular salty snack. The ads depicted kids happily playing and eating the snack.

While viewing the segment, the children were provided with two snacks: corn snacks and graham snacks. The same corn snacks provided were featured in the food advertisements shown to some of the children.

The researchers found that the preschoolers who watched the segment embedded with food ads consumed more calories in snacks on average than those who watched the department store ads.

Additionally, the children who watched the food ads ended up eating more of the advertised corn snack than the graham snack -- even if they had never eaten the corn snack before and, therefore, were not familiar with it.

"That was surprising because it demonstrated the powerful effect food advertising can have on priming potentially unhealthy eating behaviors at a young age," Emond said.

The results of this small study replicate the findings of other studies with older children.

About 40% of all food and beverage ads that children and teens see on television are for unhealthy snacks, according to a 2015 report by the University of Connecticut's Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity (PDF).

"Parents should not shrug off food marketing. These ads really do influence children," said Marlene Schwartz, director for the center and a professor of human development and family studies at the University of Connecticut, who was not involved in the new study.

"If the ads were for healthy foods, that would be an asset to parents, but when the ads are for unhealthy foods, they make parents' job harder," she said.

Story sources: Jacqueline Howard, http://www.cnn.com/2016/11/21/health/food-ads-kids-preschool/

https://consumer.healthday.com/vitamins-and-nutrition-information-27/obesity-health-news-505/tv-snack-food-ads-get-preschoolers-snacking-more-study-shows-716956.html

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