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Daily Dose

Gassy Baby? No Problem!

1:30 to read

So you are home from the hospital with your newborn baby and suddenly you realize that the babies you see on TV never cry -  but your newborn is not reading the same script.  All babies have some fussy times, and this is especially true of a newborn in the first few months of life.  While a “typical” baby cries for a total of  3-4 hours a day, there are other babies that seem to be more difficult.  

 

Besides praying for an easy baby it seems to be luck of the draw and you don’t get to pick your baby’s temperament. In many of the cases of an “irritable” infant parents point to the fact that their baby acts uncomfortable and will frequently pass gas or draw up their legs or arch their backs as if something “hurts”.   

 

Your newborn’s tummy and intestines are just as “new” as they are and early on it may be more difficult for some babies to digest breast milk or formula.  In this case pediatricians often try to make changes in a breast feeding mother’s diet (taking out dairy), or changing a formula to a lactose free formula to see if that helps a baby to be more comfortable and less fussy. There are also “elemental formulas” that may be tried for extremely fussy babies. Discuss this with your own pediatrician.

 

Little tummies do make a lot of gas (you hear those toots all of the time) and I often recommend a trial of Little Remedies Gas Relief Drops® which contain simethicone (to help break up gas bubbles). These drops are especially made for infants and do not contain any alcohol, preservatives or dyes.  You can try using the gas drops after your baby has been fed as well as at bed time. 

 

Colic is defined as crying that occurs in an infant for at least 3 hours a day, for 3 days a week, for at least 3 weeks.  Colic typically “rears its angry head” after a baby is 3 -4 weeks of age.  For those irritable, colicky babies (I had one and you will know) I also like to try Little Remedies Gripe Water which is made with ginger and fennel, herbs that have been shown to help relax the  smooth muscle of the intestine.  Again, these drops do not contain any alcohol….which is very important. 

 

I also recommend swaddling and a pacifier for “non- nutritive” sucking to help calm a crying baby.  Many babies also like being on their tummies (tummy time is important developmentally as well) when they are fussy, and you can even massage their backs as well. Remember, even if tempted,  NEVER let your baby sleep on their tummy, even if you are in the room!! Backs to sleep only.

 

Babies also seem to like motion to calm them so holding your baby and rocking or swaying may help decrease crying. A walk in the stroller is sometimes another great way to get a fussy baby to settle down. Fresh air is good for both parent and child!

 

Your Child

Stuttering and Kids

1:45

Does your child stutter? If so, he or she is not alone. More than 70 million people worldwide stutter.  Many famous people have been stutters such as musician and singer, Ann Wilson, from the band Heart, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and actor and orator James Earl Jones, to name just a few.

Stuttering is a common communication disorder that affects more boys than girls. No one knows the exact cause of stuttering, but there are four factors that most likely contribute:

  • Genetics: About 60 percent of those that stutter have a family member that stutters.
  • Neurophysiology: People that stutter may process speech and language slightly differently than those who do not stutter.  Stroke, head trauma or any other type of brain injury can also contribute to stuttering.
  • Child development: Developmental stuttering occurs in young children while they are still learning speech and language skills. It is the most common form of stuttering. Some scientists and clinicians believe that developmental stuttering occurs when children’s speech and language abilities are unable to meet the child’s verbal demands.
  • Family dynamics: Pressure, tension, fast paced lifestyles and stress within the family unit can make it difficult for a child to communicate.

There’s no miracle cure for stuttering but there are therapies that, over time, can help children and teens make significant progress towards fluency.

It’s important to remember that it’s normal for kids to stutter occasionally.

A child may stutter for a few weeks or several months, and the stuttering may be sporadic. Most kids, who begin stuttering before the age of 5, stop without any need for interventions such as speech or language therapy.

If your child is 5-years-old and still stuttering, you might want to have him or her tested by a speech pathologist or you can talk with your pediatrician for more information.

Kidshealth.org offers these tips for parents looking to help to help their child. How you communicate with your child when they stutter can have an important impact on how they see themselves.

  • Don't require your child to speak precisely or correctly at all times. Allow talking to be fun and enjoyable.
  • Use family meals as a conversation time. Avoid distractions such as radio or TV.
  • Avoid corrections or criticisms such as "slow down," "take your time," or "take a deep breath." These comments, however well intentioned, will only make your child feel more self-conscious.
  • Avoid having your child speak or read aloud when uncomfortable or when the stuttering increases. Instead, during these times encourage activities that do not require a lot of talking.
  • Don't interrupt your child or tell him or her to start over.
  • Don't tell your child to think before speaking.
  • Provide a calm atmosphere in the home. Try to slow down the pace of family life.
  • Speak slowly and clearly when talking to your child or others in his or her presence.
  • Maintain natural eye contact with your child. Try not to look away or show signs of being upset.
  • Let your child speak for himself or herself and to finish thoughts and sentences. Pause before responding to your child's questions or comments.
  • Talk slowly to your child. This takes practice! Modeling a slow rate of speech will help with your child's fluency.

Many successful adults were stutterers when they were young, some - even into adulthood. However, they have persevered and with the support of others and therapies, have brought their stuttering under control. If your child stutters, it doesn’t mean they have a lifetime disability; many children grow out of stuttering. If you’re concerned about your child, talk with your pediatrician or family physician.

Story sources: http://www.stutteringhelp.org

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/stutter.html#

 

Your Teen

E-Cigarettes Luring Non-Smoking Teens to Regular Cigarettes

2:00

E-cigarettes have not decreased teen cigarette smoking and may be enticing adolescent non-smokers to take up tobacco products, according to a new study.

Youth smoking has steadily declined over the past decade, with no steeper decrease after e-cigarettes debuted on the U.S. market in 2007, researchers report in the journal Pediatrics.

“There is strong evidence in adults, together with some, but more limited evidence in youth, that e-cigarettes are associated with less, not more quitting cigarettes,” said study co-author Dr. Stanton Glantz, director of the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco.

“The fact is that for kids, as with adults, most e-cigarette users are 'dual users,' meaning that they smoked cigarettes at the same time that they smoked e-cigarettes,” Glantz added by email to Reuters.

For the past decade, some public health officials have been concerned that e-cigarettes may lure a new generation into nicotine addiction. Others have been willing to see if the nicotine producing gadgets might actually help smokers quit cigarettes.

During the study period, the overall percentages of teens that reported any smoking decreased from 40 percent to 22 percent.

The proportion of youth who identified themselves as current smokers dropped from 16 percent to about 6 percent during the same period.

But teen cigarette smoking rates did not decline faster after the arrival of e-cigarettes in the U.S. between 2007 and 2009.

And combined e-cigarette and cigarette use among adolescents in 2014 was higher than total cigarette use in 2009, the study found.

Researcher also looked at the traits that typically go hand –in-hand with youth cigarette smokers such as living with a smoker or wearing clothing with tobacco products or logos.

While teen cigarette smokers in the study often appeared to fit this profile, adolescents who used only e-cigarettes didn’t display these risk factors.

This suggests that some low-risk teens might not use e-cigarettes if they were not an option, the authors noted.

The authors said that the study was not a controlled experiment to see if e-cigarette use directly leads to smoking cigarettes. They also noted that they lacked data on teens that dropped out of school and might have a higher rate of tobacco use than kids that remained in school.

However, this lengthy study suggests teens that use e-cigarettes are more likely to start smoking, says Dr, Thomas Wills, interim director of the Cancer Prevention and Control Program at the university of Hawaii Cancer in Honolulu.

“E-cigarette advocates have tried to argue that this is only because those teens who used e-cigarettes were high-risk people who were going to smoke anyway and their e-cigarette use had nothing to do with this,” Wills, author of an accompanying editorial, said by email.

“A number of studies have now specifically examined this hypothesis,” Wills added. “In each case, the empirical results went against the confounding hypothesis, so we can be confident that the effect of e-cigarettes for contributing to uptake of smoking is a real effect and is not just due to a group of high-risk persons.”

The USDA banned selling e-cigarettes to anyone under 18 in August of 2016. The regulations also require photo IDs to buy e-cigarettes, and ban retailers from handing out free samples or selling them in all-ages vending machines.

The rules also cover other alternative forms of tobacco like cigars, hookah tobacco and pipe tobacco.

Seeing a surge in use, U.S. big tobacco companies are now in the business of developing e-cigarettes with flavors. These are the type of e-cigarettes that generally attract younger people.

Story source: Lisa Rapaport, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-teens-e-cigarettes-idUSKBN158009

Parenting

Recent Hurricane Disasters May Have Lasting Impact on Kids

2:15

Children may experience long lasting trauma from either living through or even viewing images of natural disasters such as hurricanes, Harvey and Irma, experts say.

"Compared to adults, children suffer more from exposure to disasters, including psychological, behavioral and physical problems, as well as difficulties learning in school," Jessica Dym Bartlett, a senior research scientist at Child Trends, said in that organization's news release.

It’s reasonable to think that children who have actually had to live through the devastation of being in a hurricane could be traumatized and suffer post-traumatic stress syndrome, (PTSD.) But child mental health experts say that even kids who have seen pictures of the damage and watched news reports can also be traumatized and may develop similar symptoms of PTSD such as depression and anxiety.

"Understand that trauma reactions vary widely. Children may regress, demand extra attention and think about their own needs before those of others -- natural responses that should not be met with anger or punishment," Dym Bartlett said.

To help children through this difficult time, parents should create a comforting and safe environment where their child’s basic needs are met. Keep to regular schedules and other routines that provide children with a sense of safety and predictability.

Children that stay busy are also less likely to have continuing negative thoughts; boredom can worsen adverse thoughts and behaviors. Youngsters are less likely to feel distress if they play and interact with others, Dym Bartlett noted.

Limiting your child’s exposure to the continuous images and descriptions of disasters coming from news reports is also helpful, but it’s not necessary to try and eliminate everything pertaining to catastrophes. It’s better to help children understand what has happened in age-appropriate language and to empathize hope and positivity. Reassurance that you are there for them and will do all that is humanly possible to protect them can ease some of the fear associated with disasters.

"Find age-appropriate ways for children to help. Even very young children benefit from being able to make a positive difference in others' lives while learning important lessons about empathy, compassion and gratitude," Dym Bartlett said.

If a child continues to have difficulties coping for longer than six weeks after an event, like the hurricanes, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network recommends seeking professional help.

Parents and caregivers should also make sure that they take care of their own emotional health during these trying and sad times.

Story source: Health Day News, https://www.upi.com/Health_News/2017/09/12/Hurricanes-may-take-lasting-emotional-toll-on-kids/4141505232381/?utm_source=sec&utm_campaign=sl&utm_medium=14

Your Teen

FDA to Regulate E-cigarettes, Raise Age for Purchasing

2:00

Cigarette smoking among teens and young adults has been on a slight decline in the past few years, but e-cigarette use has been rapidly increasing.

Because there are no regulations and scant information on the products used to fuel e-cigarettes, many leading health organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics have been urging the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) to bring e-cigarettes and liquid nicotine under its authority.

The U.S. government has responded and taken action. The FDA issued a tough set of rules for the e-cigarette industry that included banning sales to anyone under 18, requiring package warning labels, and making all products—even those currently on the market—subject to government approval.

For many teen and health organizations, the ruling has been long overdue.

Though the product-approval process will be phased in during three years, that will be little solace to the fledgling but fast-growing $3.5 billion industry that has, until Aug. 8 when the rules take effect, largely been unregulated and dominated by small manufacturers and vape shops.

Many of the vape shops, device manufacturers and liquid nicotine producers are not happy with the change.

“This is going to be a grim day in the history of tobacco-harm reduction,” said Greg Conley, president of the American Vaping Association, an industry-funded advocacy group. “It will be a day where thousands of small businesses will be contemplating whether they will continue to stay in business and employ people.”

In June, the FDA proposed requiring warning labels and childproof packaging because of an increase in nicotine exposure and poisoning incidents. The agency could move to regulate advertising or flavors such as cotton candy and watermelon that also might appeal to youth.

“We’re looking at the flavor issue with e-cigarettes,” said FDA Tobacco Center Director Mitch Zeller during a news conference. Later, he said, that while the agency was aware of “anecdotal reports” that e-cigarettes have helped smokers kick their habit; those benefits were outweighed by concerns about youth using the devices.

E-cigarettes are not the only tobacco related products that will come under the control of the FDA. Unregulated tobacco items, including pipe tobacco and water-pipe tobacco, will also fall under the supervision of the FDA.

The FDA has been regulating cigarettes since Congress granted it oversight of traditional smokes with the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

“Today’s announcement is an important step in the fight for a tobacco-free generation—it will help us catch up with changes in the marketplace, put into place rules that protect our kids and give adults information they need to make informed decisions,” Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell said in a statement.

Most researchers agree e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes because, unlike cigarettes, they don’t combust. Studies have shown that when traditional cigarettes combust they release more than 60 carcinogens. But the long-term effects of using the electronic devices remain largely unknown, and many anti-tobacco groups and public health officials are concerned they could become a gateway to traditional smoking.

Anti-tobacco groups have been frustrated with FDA, saying the agency has taken far too long to finalize its rules.

Concerns escalated when a study published in August by the Journal of the American Medical Association found ninth-graders who used e-cigarettes were 2½ times as likely as peers to have smoked traditional cigarettes a year later.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in April that e-cigarette use tripled among U.S. teenagers in 2014.

The AAP issued its recommendations on tobacco and e-cigarettes in late 2015.

In a press release, the organization said it strongly recommends the minimum age to purchase tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, should be increased to age 21 nationwide.

"Tobacco use continues to be a major health threat to children, adolescents and adults," said Karen M. Wilson, MD, MPH, FAAP, chair of the AAP Section on Tobacco Control and section head of Pediatric Hospital Medicine at Children's Hospital Colorado. "The developing brains of children and teens are particularly vulnerable to nicotine, which is why the growing popularity of e-cigarettes among adolescents is so alarming and dangerous to their long-term health."

Under the new rules, e-cigarette manufacturers would have up to two years to continue to sell their products while they submit an application to the FDA.

Story sources: Tripp Mickle, Tom Burton, http://www.wsj.com/articles/fda-to-regulate-e-cigarettes-ban-sales-to-minors-1462455060

https://www.aap.org

 

Your Child

Bowlegs and Knock-Knees in Kids

2:00

Parents may be concerned when they notice their toddler seems to be bowlegged or knock-kneed. Typically, there’s nothing to worry about, it’s just part of his or her growth development.

The medical term is genu valgum, but the condition is more commonly called bow-legged or knock-kneed. It usually becomes noticeable when a child is 2 to 3 years old, and it may increase in severity until about age 4. It usually self-corrects by the time a child is about 7 or 8 years old. But if the condition doesn’t appear until a child is 6 or older, it could be a sign that there is an underlying bone disease.

During early childhood, knock-knees actually help a child to maintain balance, particularly when the child begins to walk, or if the foot rolls inward or turns outward. When a child has knock-knees, both knees usually lean inward symmetrically. One knee, however, may "knock" less than the other or may even remain straight.

Sometimes, the condition will persist into the teen years. It’s also more common in girls, although boys can develop it too.

Knock knees are usually part of the normal growth and development of the lower extremities. In some cases, it may be a sign of an underlying bone disease, such as Osteomalacia or rickets.

Obesity can contribute to knock knees—or can cause walking problems that resemble, but aren’t actually, knock-knees. The condition can occasionally result from an injury to the growth area of the shinbone (tibia), which may result in just one knocked knee.

Typically, a child’s legs will straighten naturally by the teen years. Bracing, corrective shoes, and exercise are rarely helpful, and may hinder a child’s physical development and cause unnecessary emotional stress, when the child is very young. Rarely, bowlegs or knock-knees are the result of a disease. Arthritis, injury to the growth plate around the knee, infection, tumor, Blount’s disease (a growth disorder of the shinbone), and rickets all can cause changes in the curvature of the legs. 

There are signs to look for that may indicate that a child’s bowlegs or knock-knees are caused by a more serious medical problem:

·      The curvature is extreme.

·      Only one side is affected.

·      The bowlegs get worse after two years of age.

·      The knock-knees persist after seven years of age.

·      Your child is unusually short for his or her age.

·      There is pain in the knees or in the feet, hips or ankles.

·      Stiff joints.

If your child is experiencing any of these symptoms, your pediatrician should examine him or her.

The good news is that most cases of knock-knees or bowlegs will resolve before a child reaches adolescence. However, if it doesn’t and is left untreated, it can lead to further health problems with joints and muscles, including osteoporosis.

Treatment will depend on the cause and the severity. If there is an underlying disease present, medications and supplements may help resolve the condition. A physical therapist may be able to offer some simple exercises and stretches that help strengthen the muscles and realign the knees. Weight loss is recommended when obesity is a contributing factor. Extra weight puts additional strain on the legs and knees, which can cause knock-knees to worsen. Surgery is the last line of treatment but is typically only recommended in very severe cases.

Children’s health experts suggests that parents not panic if their little one has knock-knees, but that they keep an eye on the condition and see if it goes away as the child gets older. At times, children may not have straight lower legs until they are nine or ten years old.

Story sources: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/orthopedic/Pages/Bowlegs-and-Knock-Knees.aspx

Jenna Fletcher, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319894.php

 

 

Your Child

Adult and Childhood ADHD Two Different Disorders?

1:45

A couple of recent studies are taking a new look at the differences in adult and childhood ADHD.

They suggest that adult ADHD is not just a continuation of childhood ADHD, but that the two are different disorders entirely.

In addition, the researchers say that adult-onset ADHD might actually be more common than childhood onset.

The two studies used similar methodology and showed fairly similar results.

The first study, conducted by a team at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, evaluated more than 5,000 individuals born in the city of Pelotas in 1993. Approximately 9 percent of them were diagnosed with childhood ADHD — a fairly average rate. Twelve percent of the subjects met criteria for ADHD in adulthood — significantly higher than the researchers expected — but there was very little overlap between the groups. In fact, only 12.6 percent of the adults with ADHD had shown diagnosable signs of the disorder in childhood.

The second study, which looked at 2,040 twins born in England and Wales from 1994-5, found that of 166 subjects who met the criteria for adult ADHD, more than half (67.5 percent) showed no symptoms of ADHD in childhood. Of the 247 individuals who had met the criteria for ADHD in childhood, less than 22 percent retained that diagnosis into adulthood.

These reports support findings from a third study from New Zealand, published in 2015. Researchers followed subjects from birth to age 38. Of the patients who showed signs of ADHD in adulthood in that study, 90 percent had demonstrated no signs of the disorder in childhood.

While the results from these studies suggests that the widely accepted definition of ADHD – a disorder that develops in childhood, is occasionally “outgrown” as the patient ages- may need to be reassessed.

However, not everyone is on board with the recent findings. Some experts suggest that the study’s authors may have simply missed symptoms of ADHD in childhood in cases where it didn’t seem to become apparent until adulthood.

“Because these concerns suggest that the UK, Brazil, and New Zealand studies may have underestimated the persistence of ADHD and overestimated the prevalence of adult-onset ADHD, it would be a mistake for practitioners to assume that most adults referred to them with ADHD symptoms will not have a history of ADHD in youth,” write Stephen Faraone, Ph.D., and Joseph Biederman, M.D., in an editorial cautioning the ADHD community to interpret the two most recent studies with a grain of salt. They called the findings “premature.”

In both of these studies and in previous research, adult ADHD has been linked to high levels of criminal behavior, substance abuse, traffic accidents and suicide attempts. These troubling correlations remained even after the authors adjusted for the existence of other psychiatric disorders — proving once again that whether it develops in childhood or adulthood, untreated ADHD is serious business.

Both of the studies challenge conventional beliefs that childhood onset ADHD is more likely to continue into adulthood. Many experts would like to see more research on this topic to verify these findings

The two studies were published in the July 2016 issue of JAMA Psychiatry.

Story source: Devon Frye, http://www.additudemag.com/adhdblogs/19/12040.html

Your Child

Preventing Heat-Related illness in Kids

2:00

With temperatures in the 90s and climbing, children are vulnerable to heat-related illness during the summer months.

Children are actually at a higher risk for heat exhaustion than adults. The difference is that a child's body surface area makes up a much greater proportion of his overall weight than an adult's, which means children face a much greater risk of dehydration and heat-related illness.

One of the best ways to prevent heat stroke in children is to make sure they are hydrated.  “It’s important for parents to have their kids take breaks and drink fluids,” says Dr. Ken Haller, an associate professor of pediatrics at Saint Louis University School of Medicine. “Water is usually good enough, and the occasional electrolyte solution, like Gatorade, is not a bad idea.”

Haller also notes that taking a break, whether inside or in the shade, can be helpful. And, if they are busy drinking water, your young charges are not heating themselves up by running around. Taking a break gives their small bodies time to cool down.

Children aren’t the best judge of when they are over-heated or dehydrated, that’s why it is important for parents to pay attention to how long their kids are outside and how much fluid they are getting.

And don’t be fooled just because it’s a cloudy day. While sun can definitely be a factor in heat stroke, Haller cautions that kids can still work up a sweat even in the shade if the day is hot enough.

The symptoms for heat exhaustion and heat stroke can slip up on you before you become fully aware of them. Typically, we keep our bodies cool by sweating.  Heat stroke develops when we become too dehydrated to perspire. Our bodies start to heat up even more when we can’t sweat.

The warning signs of heat exhaustion can range from nausea and vomiting to fatigue and muscle cramps.

Heat stroke symptoms in a child are: a headache, feeling dizzy, acting disoriented, agitated or confused, hallucinations, fatigue, seizure, skin that is hot, dry and flushed but not sweaty and a high body temperature of 104F or higher. Symptoms of a heat stroke are nothing to take lightly.

If you suspect that your child is having a heat stroke call 911 immediately. You can also take the child to a shady place that is cool. Remove any unnecessary clothing and fan warm air over the child while wetting the skin with lukewarm water. This will help in the cooling-down process.

Dehydration prevention is key to helping children avoid heat stroke or heat exhaustion. Make sure they drink cool water early and often. Send your child out to practice or play fully hydrated. Then, during play, make sure your child takes regular breaks to drink fluid, even if your child isn't thirsty. A good size drink for a child, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics, is 5 ounces of cold tap water for a child weighing 88 pounds, and nine ounces for a teen weighing 132 pounds. One ounce is about two kid-size gulps.

Early signs of dehydration include fatigue, thirst, dry lips and tongue,  lack of energy, and feeling overheated. But if kids wait to drink until they feel thirsty, they're already dehydrated. Thirst doesn't really kick in until a child has lost 2% of his or her body weight as sweat.

A simple rule of thumb: if your child's urine is dark in color, rather than clear or light yellow, he or she may be becoming dehydrated.

 Other factors that can put your child at greater risk for heat illness include obesity, recent illness (especially if the child has been vomiting or has had diarrhea), and use of antihistamines or diuretics.

Lack of acclimatization to hot weather and exercising beyond their level of fitness can also lead to heat illness in young athletes.

The time of day can also have an impact on how over-heated your child becomes. Outdoor playtime is better scheduled in the morning and early evening to avoid the hottest part of the day. It’s good to have shady areas nearby to get out of the sun and rest for a little while.

No one recommends keeping your child indoors all summer. Kids need unstructured playtime and exercise to stay fit mentally and physically. However, making sure they are hydrated and take breaks is the best way to prevent a potentially life –threatening situation.

Story sources: Connie Brichford, http://www.everydayhealth.com/kids-health/heat-stroke.aspx

http://www.webmd.com/children/dehydration-heat-illness#1

Your Teen

E-Cigarette Use Among Teens Triples in One Year

2:00

Marketing for e-cigarette use among teens and middle school students seems to be paying off.

A new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, says that nearly 2.5 million middle and teen high school students are choosing to “vape.” That number represents a tripling of students using e-cigarettes from 2013 to 2014 according to the report.

E-cigarette popularity among teens has now surpassed all other tobacco products including cigarettes, cigars and smokeless tobacco, the reports notes.

Dr. Tom Frieden, the Director of the CDC, calls the increase in teen and middle school student e-cigarette use “deeply alarming.”

"We're seeing a striking increase. It's very concerning," Frieden said during a media briefing. "It more than counterbalances the decrease in cigarette smoking which we've seen over the last few years."

Many proponents of e-cigarettes say they are a safe alternative to traditional cigarettes because they do not include many of the harsh ingredients that have been shown to cause lung cancer such as tar and cigarette paper chemicals.

However, they do include nicotine, which has its own set of side effects.

The brains of pre-teens and teenagers are still in a state of growth and development.  Addiction is a primary concern as well as the long-term effects nicotine can have on the developing brain.

According to Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, a monthly online journal with contributions from scientists and physicians, nicotine can have long-reaching side effects:

•       Teens do not have the brain development or emotional maturity to realize that their nicotine use impacts their health or to acknowledge the effects of nicotine dependence, and often overestimate their ability to quit whenever they choose.

•       Because teenagers' brains are still developing, their brains are particularly vulnerable to the effects of nicotine, which can in turn impair them for life. Specifically, the prefrontal cortex area of the brain is affected. Teen's developing brains are particularly sensitive and experience more of a rush from nicotine than older adults and become dependent upon it more quickly.

•       With long-term use, nicotine can damage the areas of memory, cognition, and emotions that can last indefinitely through their adult lives.

This means that teens who are regular users of nicotine are at higher risk for cognitive reasoning impairment, attention deficits, and developing mental disorders such as depression, phobias, addictions, and antisocial personality.

The new CDC survey, shows e-cigarette use among high school students increased from 4.5 percent in 2013 to 13.4 percent in 2014, rising from approximately 660,000 to 2 million students.

Among middle school students, e-cigarette use more than tripled from 1.1 percent in 2013 to 3.9 percent in 2014, an increase from approximately 120,000 to 450,000 students.

Hookahs also have grown in popularity, the CDC found. Hookah smoking roughly doubled for teens, rising from about 890,000 middle and high school students in 2013 to nearly 1.6 million in 2014.

Health experts agree that more research is needed to look into the long-term effects of the chemicals used to create the vapor in e-cigarettes.

Currently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is considering regulating e-cigarettes as they do traditional tobacco products.

It may or may not be a coincidence that both marketing for e-cigarettes and teen use of e-cigarettes has tripled. Companies can advertise e-cigarettes on TV, even though commercials for cigarettes were banned in 1971. 

According to a study published last November in the journal Pediatrics, E-cigarette commercials increased 256 percent between 2011 and 2013, and more than three-fourths of teens' exposure to e-cigarette ads happened on cable channels. AMC aired the most, followed by Country Music Television and Comedy Central.

These ads are not designed to encourage teens to stop smoking, but instead to start vaping.

Should e-cigarettes regulation comes under the control of the FDA, advertising on TV most likely will stop. But by then it may be too little, too late.

Sources: Dennis Thompson, http://consumer.healthday.com/cancer-information-5/tobacco-and-kids-health-news-662/e-cigarette-use-triples-among-u-s-teens-in-1-year-698513.html

Kirsten Schuder, http://addiction.lovetoknow.com/smoking/effects-e-cigarettes-teenagers

Julia Glum, http://www.ibtimes.com/teens-smoking-e-cigarettes-marketing-may-be-blame-increase-number-vaping-high-school-1724105

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