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Your Child

Are Hand Sanitizers Are Making Kids Sick?

2:00

Hand sanitizer is available just about everywhere you go, especially during the flu and cold season.  I’ve used it myself to wipe down grocery cart handles and while visiting friends and family members in the hospital. Schools have also become very conscientious about spreading germs and many have sanitizer dispensers in classrooms and halls. Lots of families make sure that sanitizers are available in the home to help keep bacteria and viruses at bay.

While gel hand sanitizers are convenient, they are also contributing to a rise in kids getting sick after ingesting the products, according to a new government report.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) researchers tracked illnesses from 2011 to 2014 for children aged 12 and under. The investigators believe some kids in the higher age range may be drinking sanitizers because of the products' high alcohol content.

"Older children [aged 6-12 years] were more likely to report intentional ingestion and to have adverse health effects and worse outcomes than were younger children, suggesting that older children might be deliberately misusing or abusing alcohol hand sanitizers," wrote the team led by Dr. Cynthia Santos, of the CDC's National Center for Environmental Health.

Typical hand sanitizers contain 60 to 90 percent ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, as well as scents that children might find appealing.

"Recent reports have identified serious consequences" with ingesting hand sanitizers, the CDC team said. These include breathing difficulties, excessive acid buildup in tissues, and even coma.

So, what’s going on with kids and hand sanitizers? The researchers said that answer might depend on the age of the child. Most of these exposures may have been accidental, with 91 percent occurring in kids, aged 5 and under. But about 6,200 incidents affected kids aged 6 to 12, and these have a much higher odds of being intentional ingestions, the research showed.

Santos noted that ingestion of alcohol sanitizers was also associated with worse symptoms in kids.

While vomiting and eye irritation were the most common symptoms, much more serious events were also recorded, including five cases of coma and three cases involving seizures, Santos' group said.

What’s influencing this change? According to the CDC team, in recent years many schools have installed gel hand sanitizer dispensers, or requested that children bring their own hand sanitizer gels to school.

Santos' group pointed to "a study examining Texas poison center data from 2000 to 2011 [that] found that, among 385 adolescents who ingested hand sanitizer, 35 percent of ingestions occurred at school.

The CDC team noted that "hand washing with soap and water is the recommended method of hand hygiene in non-health care settings" such as the home and school. Hand washing is a safe, effective germ-killer, they said, without the risks to children that can come with hand sanitizers.

If hand sanitizers must be used, the researchers said adult supervision and proper storage -- away from children's reach when not in use -- could help lower poisoning risks.

Hand sanitizers play a role in making sure that germs aren’t spread or for a quick cleanup when water and soap aren’t available, but as with most chemicals, they need to be kept out of the mouths of young children. Older kids may not understand the dangers of ingesting products with alcohol listed as an ingredient. What may seem like a lark could put them in a coma. A discussion about drinking alcohol and the facts about the different types of alcohol – such as ethanol or isopropyl alcohol – may save them from a trip to the ER.

The report was published in the CDC journal Morbidity and Mortality.

Story source: E.J. Mundell, https://consumer.healthday.com/public-health-information-30/poisons-health-news-537/rising-number-of-kids-ill-from-drinking-hand-sanitizers-cdc-720300.html

 

 

Daily Dose

SIDS Risks

1.30 to read

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is every parent’s worst nightmare. From the time a family has their new baby until that child is 1 year of age, SIDS is of a concern. 

Most new parents in 2012 know about the Back to Sleep campaign (BTS), which was recommended by the AAP in 1994. After  the recommendation for newborn’s sleep position was changed from prone (tummy) to supine (back) the incidence of SIDS in the U.S. showed a sharp decline (more than 50%) over the first 10 year period. Unfortunately, the overall SIDS rate has plateaued since that time, and SIDS is still the leading cause of infant mortality in the U.S. 

A study in the April 2012 issue of the journal Pediatrics looked at risk factors for SIDS. Parents need to know that greatest risk for SIDS is during the first 12 months of life (the so named “Critical” development period). There are also both intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for SIDS as well. All of these factors contribute to the vulnerability for SIDS. 

The peak incidence for SIDS is still between 2-4 months of a baby’s life. (postnatal age). The intrinsic risk factors for SIDS include, male gender, prematurity, genetic differences (now being found called polymorphisms) and a child’s prenatal exposure to cigarettes and/or alcohol. Extrinsic risk factors include tummy or side sleep position, bed sharing, over bundling, soft bedding and a child’s face being covered.  In this study 99% of SIDS infants had at least 1 risk factor, and 57% had at least 2 extrinsic and 1 intrinsic risk factors. Only 5% of the SIDS victims studied had no extrinsic risk. I think this is important for all parents to know! 

So what can parent’s do to lower the risk of SIDS for their baby?  Well, while you cannot change the peak incidence of SIDS between 2-4 months of a baby’s life there is a lot you can do! 

Looking at intrinsic factors:  gender is a 50-50 deal and seeing that I have 3 sons, I don’t know a lot about gender selection, so will not even touch that topic. But, you can prevent prenatal cigarette and alcohol exposure, and every pregnant mother (and father due to second had smoke issues) should eliminate smoking. That sounds easy enough. 

Prematurity may be lessened when a mother is healthy prior to her pregnancy and continues to do as much as possible during her pregnancy to ensure a full term birth. Basically maintaining a healthy diet, getting good prenatal care and listening to your doctor will help to prevent many pre-term births. 

Extrinsic factors are the easiest to change. While prone sleep positioning is a large risk factor for SIDS, there is now evidence that some other risks may appear in conjunction with sleep position.  Putting a baby on their side where they may roll to their tummies may be one issue.  Leaving soft objects or blanket in the crib may be another. Bed sharing is also not advised. 

So, the so-called “triple risk factors” for SIDS may be important information in providing risk reduction strategies for parents and caregivers. Any change that may lessen the risk of SIDS is meaningful and beneficial and will help new parents sleep a bit better as well!  I also did not see any mention of video cameras in the room as a reduction in risk, just saying..... 

That’s your daily dose for today.  We’ll chat again tomorrow.

Your Child

Sweet Potatoes May Help Prevent Diarrhea in Children

1:45

Orange sweet potatoes get high approval ratings from many pediatricians and family doctors because they offer a lot of health benefits and they taste good, so kids are more likely to eat them.

Recent research suggests they may also be helpful in reducing the cases of diarrhea in some young children by more than 50 percent.

Erick Boy, head of nutrition at HarvestPlus, said that the body converts the beta-carotene in the sweet potatoes to vitamin A the same day the food is eaten. That vitamin A is then used in the outer lining of the human gut, forming a barrier against different types of bacteria. Boy further explained that the gut uses surplus vitamin A from time to time to replace worn-out cells with healthy ones.

The researchers claimed that if a child below age 5 has consumed orange sweet potatoes in the past week, then the chances were 42 percent less that child would suffer from diarrhea. In children below age 3, the likelihood of developing the condition reduced by 52 percent.

Regular consumption of orange sweet potatoes also helps decrease the duration of diarrhea, the researchers claimed. The team observed that the duration was reduced by 10 percent among 5-year-olds and 25 percent in 3-year-olds.

This could be extremely helpful in countries like Africa, where 40 percent of the children are vitamin A deficient. This increases their risk of diseases such as diarrhea, which is one of the leading causes of mortality in children, taking more than 350,000 lives of children under five in Africa every year.

Vitamin A deficiency is rare n America, however, diarrhea in U.S. children is fairly common; typically related to viral infections or tainted food sources.

Sweet potatoes are easy to prepare and can be baked as fries or tater-tots, veggie muffins, made into soup, and mashed like regular potatoes. Many kids like their orange color and sweet taste. Besides being high in vitamin A, they contain vitamin B5, B6, thiamin, niacin, and riboflavin and are high in carotenoids. They are lower in calories than white potatoes – but a little higher in sugar.

For as sweet as they are, sweet potatoes have a low glycemic index (which means they release sugar slowly into the bloodstream).

The study was published in the journal World Development.

Sources: Guneet Bhatia,  http://www.universityherald.com/articles/20051/20150615/sweet-potatoes-may-reduce-diarrhea-in-children.htm#ixzz3djHgM93e

 

 

 

Your Child

Unhealthy TV Snack Ads Work on Preschoolers

1:30

Kids love snacks and advertisers count on that to sell products.  That’s why so many commercials on children’s TV shows promote snacks packed with sugar and salt. According to a new study, preschoolers who are exposed to these types of ads will eat more of those foods, even if they are not hungry.

The study, led by Jennifer Emond, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire, involved a small study of 60 children, 2 to 5 years old. Emond’s team monitored the kids as they watched a 14-minute segment of “Sesame Street.”

The preschoolers got a filling snack before the show, so they were not hungry, and then had unlimited access to snacks during it.

Some of the children watched the "Sesame Street" segment without food commercials, while others watched the show with commercials for a popular salty snack. The ads depicted kids happily playing and eating the snack.

While viewing the segment, the children were provided with two snacks: corn snacks and graham snacks. The same corn snacks provided were featured in the food advertisements shown to some of the children.

The researchers found that the preschoolers who watched the segment embedded with food ads consumed more calories in snacks on average than those who watched the department store ads.

Additionally, the children who watched the food ads ended up eating more of the advertised corn snack than the graham snack -- even if they had never eaten the corn snack before and, therefore, were not familiar with it.

"That was surprising because it demonstrated the powerful effect food advertising can have on priming potentially unhealthy eating behaviors at a young age," Emond said.

The results of this small study replicate the findings of other studies with older children.

About 40% of all food and beverage ads that children and teens see on television are for unhealthy snacks, according to a 2015 report by the University of Connecticut's Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity (PDF).

"Parents should not shrug off food marketing. These ads really do influence children," said Marlene Schwartz, director for the center and a professor of human development and family studies at the University of Connecticut, who was not involved in the new study.

"If the ads were for healthy foods, that would be an asset to parents, but when the ads are for unhealthy foods, they make parents' job harder," she said.

Story sources: Jacqueline Howard, http://www.cnn.com/2016/11/21/health/food-ads-kids-preschool/

https://consumer.healthday.com/vitamins-and-nutrition-information-27/obesity-health-news-505/tv-snack-food-ads-get-preschoolers-snacking-more-study-shows-716956.html

Parenting

Flour with Added Folic Acid Is Reducing Birth Defects

2:00

Folic acid is a B vitamin that is known to help prevent certain types of birth defects in newborns. In January 1998, the FDA added a requirement that folic acid be added to breads, cereals, and other products that use enriched flour. These fortified foods include most enriched breads, flours, corn meals, rice, noodles, macaroni, and other grain products.

Since then, a new report shows that serious birth defects have fallen 35 percent. While that is certainly wonderful news, a 2014 study found that as many as 25 percent of American women are still not receiving even the minimum amount of recommended folic acid from either their diet or through supplements.

Women who don't get enough folic acid have an elevated risk of giving birth to a child with conditions called neural tube defects, the best known of which is spina bifida, which often causes paralysis.

Health experts began recommending that women of childbearing age take folic acid in 1992 because studies showed that taking 400 micrograms a day could reduce spina bifida and related birth defects by up to 70%.

Doctors now recommend that women who are considering having children start taking folic acid before trying to get pregnant. Since some pregnancies are not necessarily planned, many doctors recommend that women of childbearing age take a daily multivitamin that contains folic acid.

The benefits of folic acid have been researched for quite some time and since food producers began adding folic acid to grains, that simple step has prevented more than 1,300 babies a year from being born with spina bifida or related conditions, according to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Authors of the new study found that Hispanic women are more likely to have a baby with spina bifida or a similar birth defect.

That's partly because the "masa harina" corn flour used in tortillas and other Hispanic foods isn't fortified with folic acid, the study says. The March of Dimes has petitioned the FDA to require that folic acid be added to corn flour. Adding folic acid to corn flour would prevent another 40 cases of spina bifida or related conditions each year, the report says.

"Even with fortification, there will be some women that do not get the recommended amount of folic acid every day," says Candice Burns Hoffmann, of the CDC's National Centers for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. "We still have more work to do."

If you’re considering having a baby, talk to your doctor before becoming pregnant about the benefits of folic acid and how much you may need.

Sources: Liz Szabo, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2015/01/15/folic-acid-birth-defects/21784019/

http://www.spinabifidaassociation.org

Your Child

Dog Bites and Young Children

1:30

Most young kids can read a dog well enough to know if it is angry or scared, but they may be confused over whether to approach one or not, according to a new British study.

While young children often knew an angry dog was trouble, they were just as likely to approach a frightened dog as a happy one.

Co-author of the study, Sarah Rose, of Staffordshire University, and her team examined hospital statistics of children in the U.K. bitten by a dog.

"This study explored whether the explanation is that they are unable to accurately recognize a dog's emotions when approaching one," she said in a news release from the British Psychological Society.

The researchers asked two groups of kids to look at images and brief videos of dogs. The first group was 57 children between the ages of 4 and 5. The second group included 61 children, ages 6 to 7. Some of the videos and images showed dogs that appeared to be angry or frightened.

The researchers then asked the children to describe the apparent emotion of the dog and say whether they'd be willing to play with the dog.

The researchers found that children were able to recognize happy, angry and frightened dogs to a greater degree than chance would suggest.

They were most attuned to angry dogs, but less successful at recognizing happy or frightened dogs. They didn't seem to understand that they shouldn't approach a frightened dog.

Dog bites are a problem in the United States as well. They are the second most frequent cause of visits to emergency rooms from 9 activities common among children such as sports, skateboarding and All-terrain vehicles.

The U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates half of all children 12 years-of-age and under have been bitten by a dog. In many cases, teasing or an unintentional provocation, such as approaching a dog while it's eating or sleeping, can lead to a dog bite or even worse, an attack.  The vast majority of dog bites are from a dog that the child is acquainted with - his or her own, a neighbor's, or a friend's dog.  Seventy nine percent of fatal dog attacks are on children.

"Young children are relatively good at accurately identifying the emotion that a dog is displaying," Rose said. "However, children's understanding of safety around dogs is lacking, as they only demonstrated caution about approaching angry dogs. They appeared to be unaware that there might be problems approaching frightened dogs. This finding should help inform dog bite prevention campaigns."

Studies have shown that even a single dog bite prevention lesson incorporated into a regular school day has been shown to dramatically reduce high-risk behaviors toward unfamiliar dogs in both very young (kindergarten) and middle school children.

Most children learn about dogs and other animals from their home environment. Parents can go the extra step in helping to prevent dog-related injuries by teaching their children that scared dogs are similar to angry dogs in how they react to being approached.

Young children, particularly toddlers, should never be left unsupervised around a dog- even a family pet.

Story sources: Randy Dotinga, https://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/misc-kid-s-health-news-435/young-kids-unaware-of-the-risks-of-approaching-scared-dogs-714883.html

http://www.safetyarounddogs.org/statistics.html

 

 

Your Child

What is a “Growth Plate” Fracture?

1:45

If you’ve ever taken your child to the ER for a broken bone, you may have heard the doctor mention the possibility of a growth plate fracture. What are growth plates? They are areas of soft tissue at the ends of your child's long bones. They are found in many places, including the thigh, forearm, and hand. 

Only children have growth plates because they are still developing. Once your child stops growing, the plates turn into bone. This typically happens around age 20.

Because the growth plates are soft, they're easily injured. When that happens it's called a "growth plate fracture."

These kinds of injuries usually heal easily, however, there can be complications if they are not treated correctly or the injury is severe.

Some complications can produce what is called “growth arrest.” That is when the injury causes his or her bone to stop growing. A child may end up with one leg or arm shorter than the other.

Your child's likely to get crooked legs or one leg shorter than the other if his growth plates were damaged at his knee. That's because there are a lot of nerves and blood vessels in that area that can be hurt along with the growth plate.

Sometimes, a growth plate fracture can also cause the bone to grow more, but this has the same result: One limb ends up longer than the other.

A less common problem is when a ridge develops along the fracture line. This can also interfere with the bone's growth or cause it to curve.

If the bone is sticking out of the skin, there's also a chance of infection, which can damage the growth plate even more.

Younger children are more likely to get complications because their bones still have a lot of growing to do. But one benefit is that younger bones tend to heal better.

There are treatments for growth plate injuries. If the fracture isn’t severe and the bone is still lined up correctly, your child's doctor might just put on a cast, splint, or brace. Your child won't be able to move his limb that way, which gives the growth plate time and space to heal.

What if the bones are not lined up correctly? Your child’s doctor will have to get them back in alignment by what is called “reduction.” Sometimes a doctor can line the bones back up by hand and sometimes it requires surgery.

If by hand, the doctor moves the bones back in line with his hands and not by cutting the skin. This is called "manipulation" and can be done in the emergency room or an operating room. Your child will get pain medication so he doesn't feel anything.

If your child needs surgery, It gets a little more complicated and takes anywhere from a couple weeks to a couple of months to heal. During surgery, the doctor cuts into the skin, puts the bones back in line, and puts in screws, wires, rods, pins, or metal plates to hold the pieces together. Your child will have to wear a cast until the bones heal.

If a ridge forms at the fracture line, your child's doctor may recommend surgery to remove the ridge. He can then pad the area with fat or another material to keep it from growing back.

Most of the time, kids get back to normal after a growth plate fracture without any lasting effects. One exception is if the growth plate is crushed. When that happens, the bone will almost always grow differently.

Once the injury has healed, your doctor may suggest exercises to strengthen the injured area.

Some children may need a second surgery called reconstructive surgery if the injury is serious enough.

If your child suffers a growth plate injury, he or she should have follow-up appointments for at least a year.  Once your doctor gives the OK, your child will be able to get back to the kinds of activities he or she enjoys.

Story source: Hansa D. Bhargava, MD, http://www.webmd.com/children/child-bone-fracture-16/growth-plate-fracture

 

Your Teen

Excessive Sweating in Teens

2:00

Sweating is a natural function of the body. It helps cools you down when you overheat and expels toxins to prevent toxic overload. But Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating,) is not only embarrassing; it may also indicate an underlying health problem.

Underarm problems tend to start in late adolescence, while palm and sole sweating often begins earlier, around age 13 (on the average). Untreated, these problems may continue throughout life.

Excessive sweating can stain clothes, impact relationships and complicate social interactions. A recent study noted that 70 percent of teens reporting excess sweating said it interfered with their daily living activities.

Adelaide A. Hebert, MD, chief of pediatric dermatology at the University of Texas, Houston, said during a presentation to the American Academy of Dermatology’s annual meeting, that it is time medical schools pay more attention to it.

“These kids have often seen a number of physicians who really haven’t taken this clinical condition to heart,” Hebert said.

“They don’t know what to do, so they tell the kids not to worry. The kids just don’t get the answers that will be beneficial to them, so educating physicians is key.” Hebert said that global medical education devotes virtually no time to the study of hyperhidrosis in adolescents.

Children, especially teens, normally sweat when:

  • It is hot
  • Eating spicy foods
  • Exercising
  • They are angry, anxious, or nervous
  • They have a fever

However, there are a number of medical conditions that can cause excessive sweating, including:

  • Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland)
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Infections
  • Heart failure
  • Medication side effects
  • Drug withdrawal

How do you know if your teen has a problem with excessive sweating? If your teens’ sweating interferes with his or her daily activities, has become barely tolerable, or seems much heavier than his or her friends doing the same activities, you should talk with your pediatrician or family doctor.

For example, your teen will likely be sweating while playing volleyball, but it shouldn't be so severe that sweaty palms interfere with his or her holding the ball.

Treatments that may help control excessive sweating include over-the-counter antiperspirants as well as prescription antiperspirants, such as:

  • A regular over-the-counter antiperspirant -- use it both in the morning and the evening for best results
  • A newer over-the-counter antiperspirant, such as Secret Clinical Strength (Aluminum Zirconium Trichlorohydrex) or Hydrosal Professional (Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate 15%)
  • An over-the-counter antiperspirant, such as Certain Dri, with Aluminum Chloride 12%
  • A prescription strength antiperspirant, such as DrySol, with Aluminum Chloride 20%, or Xerac AC, with Aluminum Chloride 6.25%
  • Anticholinergic medications -- although because of their side effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, and drowsiness, they are more helpful for generalized hyperhidrosis, and not teens who just have sweaty palms or excessive armpit sweating

Although the effect is only temporarily, Botox works to block a neurotransmitter that stimulates sweat glands, leading to a decrease in sweat production for 6 to 7 months.

Excessive sweating can cause teens a lot of emotional distress that continues into adulthood. Starting early with a diagnosis and treatment may prove valuable throughout his or her lifetime.

Story sources: Vincent Iannelli MD, https://www.verywell.com/excessive-sweating-and-control-for-teens-2634358

http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/hyperhidrosis2#1

Whitney McKnight, http://www.mdedge.com/pediatricnews/article/132710/pediatrics/physicians-need-take-hyperhidrosis-teens-seriously

 

Your Child

CDC Warning: Dangerous Pool Parasite

2:00

With temperatures in the high 80s and 90s, lots of families are cooling down with a swim in the pool. It’s pretty much become a summer tradition over the decades and can be a great way to have fun, exercise and beat the heat.

However, there is a parasite outbreak that parents should know about before allowing their children to swim in public, private or even their own pool.

The parasite is Cryptosporidium and it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever and stomach cramps. You can become infected with cryptosporidium by touching anything that has come in contact with contaminated feces.

The parasite is encased in a tough shell and is not easily removed by typical pool treatments like chlorine or bromine. It can survive for several days after a pool treatment, whereas e-coli is typically eliminated within minutes.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently issued a warning about the dangers of Cryptosporidium in pools and hot tubs.

CDC's Healthy Swimming Program chief Michele Hlavsa said that the outbreaks commonly affect children.

"With these outbreaks, we see they disproportionately affect young children," Hlavasa said, "They're the ones who can go to a pool and young children tend to carry lots of germs."

The parasite can be cleared from the body in about two to three weeks, Hlavasa said, but in a person with a weakened immune system the condition may become chronic or even fatal.

Pool owners can help reduce the risk to their family and guests by insisting people shower before diving into the water, the CDC stated. This practice could assist in preventing the microorganism from contaminating hot tubs or pools. It is also a good idea for anyone experiencing diarrhea to stay out of pools, the national public health agency recommended. Parents of young children are advised to change diapers well away from pools, in order to prevent contamination of the water by human waste.

For families visiting public pools, the CDC recommends that parents look to see their pool's most recent inspection was posted through their local health department or even look into buying their own chlorine tests that can be used to test if the water is properly treated.

The CDC also provides several sets of tips to help prevent water-borne illnesses:

Keep the pee, poop, sweat, and germs out of the water!

•       Stay out of the water if you have diarrhea.

•       Shower before you get in the water.

•       Don't pee or poop in the water.

•       Don't swallow the water.

Every hour—everyone out!

•       Take kids on bathroom breaks.

•       Check diapers, and change them in a bathroom or diaper-changing area—not poolside—to keep germs away from the pool.

•       Reapply sunscreen.

•       Drink plenty of fluids.

Check the free chlorine level and pH before getting into the water.

•       Pools: Proper free chlorine level (1–3 mg/L or parts per million [ppm]) and pH (7.2–7.8) levels maximize germ-killing power.

•       Hot tubs/spas: Proper disinfectant level (chlorine [2–4 parts per million or ppm] or bromine [4–6 ppm]) and pH (7.2–7.8) maximize germ-killing power.

•       Most superstores, hardware stores, and pool-supply stores sell pool test strips.

Enjoying the benefits of swimming is something that families everywhere will be taking advantage of this summer. Remember, we share the water—and the germs in it—with everyone. Take these few steps ahead of time to help make sure summer pool fun doesn’t turn into a summer illness.

Sources: http://www.cdc.gov/features/healthyswimming/

Gillian Mohney, http://abcnews.go.com/Health/cdc-warns-pool-parasite-summer/story?id=32060444

 

 

 

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DR SUE'S DAILY DOSE

What is baby led weaning when it comes to first foods?

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