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Your Child

Pot-Laced Sweets Can Poison A Child

1:45

Marijuana is legal for recreational and/ or medicinal use in over half of the U.S., plus many states have decriminalized possession for small amounts.

Cupcakes, brownies and candies are a tempting alternative to smoking pot for many people. These kinds of sweets can be irresistible to kids -- but eating even one treat might poison them, a leading group of U.S. pediatricians warns.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) says parents must take steps to keep these potential temptations away from their children.

Today’s marijuana isn’t your parents’ pot any longer. These days, a typical ounce of pot contains higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana.

If a child eats even one of these edibles it can cause overdose effects such as intoxication, altered perception, anxiety, panic, paranoia and heart problems, according to a news release from the doctors' group.

The AAP recommends treating marijuana (in any form) like you would any medication or drug you keep in your home if you have a child.

  • If you have marijuana edibles in your home, store them as you would medications and other potentially toxic products. Keep them in out-of-reach or locked locations, in child-resistant packaging or containers. Clearly label marijuana edibles, and store them in their original packaging.
  • Never consume marijuana edibles in front of children, either for medical or recreational purposes. Seeing adults consume the products can tempt kids, and using them may impair your ability to provide a safe environment for children.
  • Immediately after using them, put marijuana edibles back into the child-resistant packaging and an out-of-reach location.
  • Ask family members, friends, caregivers and anyone else whose homes your children spend time in if they use marijuana edibles. If so, make sure they follow these guidelines while watching your children.
  • If a child accidentally consumes a marijuana edible, call the free poison control hotline -- 1-800-222-1222 -- as soon as possible. If symptoms seem severe, call 911 or go to an emergency room right away.
  • Talk to older children and teens about edible pot products. Explain the risks to their health and remind them to never drive under the influence of marijuana, or ride in a car with a driver who is under the influence of the drug.

In the last decade, marijuana has grown in acceptance and many are taking advantage of relaxed or reversed laws. It has helped patients through chemotherapy, severe pain, PTSD, and in some instances - helps to control seizures.

It’s still a drug though and can have severe consequences for children that manage to ingest it without a doctor’s oversight.

Story source: Robert Preidt, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20170317/pot-laced-goodies-can-poison-a-child

Your Teen

Half of American Teens Breathe Secondhand Smoke

2:00

We’ve come a long way in this country in regards to making public places free of cigarette smoke, but people in their home or car can smoke as much as they like- and that’s their right to do so. When there are children in those homes and cars – they’re inhaling secondhand smoke and that can have a major impact on their physical wellbeing.

Secondhand smoke is the smoke a smoker breathes out and that comes from the tip of burning cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. It contains about 4,000 chemicals. Many of these chemicals are dangerous; more than 50 are known to cause cancer. Anytime children breathe in secondhand smoke they are exposed to these chemicals. 

Researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Office of Smoking and Health examined data from more than 18,000 middle school and high school students; researchers found that 48 percent reported exposure to secondhand smoke in 2013. Additionally, secondhand smoke exposure was reportedly nine times higher among never-smoking teens with no smoke-free rules in their home and car, compared to those with 100 percent smoke-free rules.

"The findings weren't really a surprise as much as a call for public health action," said study author Brian King, deputy director. "The continuing research [on secondhand smoke] really helps us put a finger on who's exposed and in what location," he said.

According to the study, secondhand smoke exposure is known to contribute to several health problems in children, including respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, middle ear disease and sudden infant death syndrome.

Analyzing questionnaire responses from students in grades 6 through 12 in 2013, King and his colleagues found that 16 percent were exposed to secondhand smoke at home and 15 percent in a vehicle. Additionally, 17 percent reported secondhand smoke exposure at school, 27 percent of those who were old enough to have a job, at work and 35 percent in indoor and outdoor public areas.

"We did assess the extent of exposure based on whether youth were [protected] by smoke-free policies, and it's no surprise that those covered by policies had lower exposure," King said.

Regarding home and car exposure, "I think it really comes down to individual families to take that action," he added.

Dr. Normal Edelman, senior scientific advisor for the American Lung Association, called the research "very useful." He noted that comprehensive public no-smoking policies have helped lower U.S. smoking rates by helping some smokers break the habit.

"We've made great strides in protecting adults from secondhand smoke ... and the health effects have been dramatic," Edelman said. "So now it's time to protect kids from secondhand smoke, and this [study] shows that many of our kids are exposed to at least some secondhand smoke. Clearly, if they live with smokers, they're exposed to a lot, and I think those kids are most at risk."

On a personal note, my mother smoked from the time I was born to after I left home. In those bygone days, most people were not aware of the dangers of smoking and cigarette ads even promoted the “health benefits” from taking a long drag off a cigarette.

Unfortunately for me, the heath benefits were nil. I had bronchitis 2 or 3 times a year and ear infections when I was little. I developed asthma, as I got older.  No one ever made the connection between the constant cigarette smoke in the house and car and my illnesses. I was just considered a rather “sickly child.” Eventually, my mother developed COPD.

Believe me when I say secondhand smoke can become a real health problem for children.

While 26 U.S. states and the District of Columbia have implemented comprehensive smoke-free laws prohibiting smoking in all indoor public places and work sites -- including restaurants and bars -- several states have no statewide laws addressing secondhand smoke in public areas, and others have less stringent restrictions.

Source: Maureen Salamon, http://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/adolescents-and-teen-health-news-719/half-of-u-s-teens-exposed-to-secondhand-smoke-study-says-706864.html

https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/tobacco/Pages/Dangers-of-Secondhand-Smoke.aspx

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Heart Healthy Kids

Heart Health

Parenting

Any Benefits From Eating Your Own Placenta?

2:00

Here’s a medical study I never thought I’d read –“Are there health benefits associated with eating your own placenta after giving birth”?

Well…no, according to a research team from Northwestern University in Chicago. In fact, there may be a few health risks associated with ingesting placenta.

As I read the study’s findings, I began to wonder; who thought this was a good idea in the first place?

It turns out that throughout history there have been some cultures in which women ate the placenta after giving birth. It’s called placentophagy.

Some animals are known to also eat their afterbirth.

Apparently its’ also become the thing among a few celebrity mothers. While some believe that fresh placenta provides the most benefits, others elect to make a smoothie or have it dried, processed and made into pills.

However, the question still remains – is there any real benefit from eating placenta whether it’s raw, processed, made into a smoothie or pill, grilled or baked?

Scientists from Northwestern University pored over accumulated research that has been done on the topic.  The bottom line is that they could not find any evidence that there are any health benefits to placentophagy and that there may be unknown risks to mothers and their infants.

"Our sense is that women choosing placentophagy, who may otherwise be very careful about what they are putting into their bodies during pregnancy and nursing, are willing to ingest something without evidence of its benefits and, more importantly, of its potential risks to themselves and their nursing infants," study lead author and psychologist Cynthia Coyle said in a Northwestern news release.

In the study, Coyle's team reviewed data from 10 published studies. They found no data to support that eating the placenta -- either raw, cooked or in pill form -- protects against postpartum depression, reduces pain after childbirth, increases a woman's energy, helps with lactation, improves mother-child bonding, replenishes iron in the body, or improves skin elasticity. All touted as reasons many of the celebrity moms chose to give it a try.

The researchers also said that there are no studies examining the risks associated with eating the placenta, which acts as a filter to absorb and protect fetuses from toxins and pollutants.

Coyle noted that "there are no regulations as to how the placenta is stored and prepared, and the dosing is inconsistent. Women really don't know what they are ingesting."

If placentophagy appeals to you, be sure and check with your hospital or birthing center first. Many hospitals dispose of the placenta as bio-hazardous waste along with the other medical waste that occurs during birth (needles, blood, gloves etc.). You’ll most likely have to make arrangements ahead of time or find a more accommodating provider.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://www.webmd.com/baby/news/20150604/new-moms-gain-no-benefit-from-eating-placenta-studies-show

Your Teen

FDA to Regulate E-cigarettes, Raise Age for Purchasing

2:00

Cigarette smoking among teens and young adults has been on a slight decline in the past few years, but e-cigarette use has been rapidly increasing.

Because there are no regulations and scant information on the products used to fuel e-cigarettes, many leading health organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics have been urging the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) to bring e-cigarettes and liquid nicotine under its authority.

The U.S. government has responded and taken action. The FDA issued a tough set of rules for the e-cigarette industry that included banning sales to anyone under 18, requiring package warning labels, and making all products—even those currently on the market—subject to government approval.

For many teen and health organizations, the ruling has been long overdue.

Though the product-approval process will be phased in during three years, that will be little solace to the fledgling but fast-growing $3.5 billion industry that has, until Aug. 8 when the rules take effect, largely been unregulated and dominated by small manufacturers and vape shops.

Many of the vape shops, device manufacturers and liquid nicotine producers are not happy with the change.

“This is going to be a grim day in the history of tobacco-harm reduction,” said Greg Conley, president of the American Vaping Association, an industry-funded advocacy group. “It will be a day where thousands of small businesses will be contemplating whether they will continue to stay in business and employ people.”

In June, the FDA proposed requiring warning labels and childproof packaging because of an increase in nicotine exposure and poisoning incidents. The agency could move to regulate advertising or flavors such as cotton candy and watermelon that also might appeal to youth.

“We’re looking at the flavor issue with e-cigarettes,” said FDA Tobacco Center Director Mitch Zeller during a news conference. Later, he said, that while the agency was aware of “anecdotal reports” that e-cigarettes have helped smokers kick their habit; those benefits were outweighed by concerns about youth using the devices.

E-cigarettes are not the only tobacco related products that will come under the control of the FDA. Unregulated tobacco items, including pipe tobacco and water-pipe tobacco, will also fall under the supervision of the FDA.

The FDA has been regulating cigarettes since Congress granted it oversight of traditional smokes with the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

“Today’s announcement is an important step in the fight for a tobacco-free generation—it will help us catch up with changes in the marketplace, put into place rules that protect our kids and give adults information they need to make informed decisions,” Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell said in a statement.

Most researchers agree e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes because, unlike cigarettes, they don’t combust. Studies have shown that when traditional cigarettes combust they release more than 60 carcinogens. But the long-term effects of using the electronic devices remain largely unknown, and many anti-tobacco groups and public health officials are concerned they could become a gateway to traditional smoking.

Anti-tobacco groups have been frustrated with FDA, saying the agency has taken far too long to finalize its rules.

Concerns escalated when a study published in August by the Journal of the American Medical Association found ninth-graders who used e-cigarettes were 2½ times as likely as peers to have smoked traditional cigarettes a year later.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in April that e-cigarette use tripled among U.S. teenagers in 2014.

The AAP issued its recommendations on tobacco and e-cigarettes in late 2015.

In a press release, the organization said it strongly recommends the minimum age to purchase tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, should be increased to age 21 nationwide.

"Tobacco use continues to be a major health threat to children, adolescents and adults," said Karen M. Wilson, MD, MPH, FAAP, chair of the AAP Section on Tobacco Control and section head of Pediatric Hospital Medicine at Children's Hospital Colorado. "The developing brains of children and teens are particularly vulnerable to nicotine, which is why the growing popularity of e-cigarettes among adolescents is so alarming and dangerous to their long-term health."

Under the new rules, e-cigarette manufacturers would have up to two years to continue to sell their products while they submit an application to the FDA.

Story sources: Tripp Mickle, Tom Burton, http://www.wsj.com/articles/fda-to-regulate-e-cigarettes-ban-sales-to-minors-1462455060

https://www.aap.org

 

Parenting

Why Do U.S. Birth Rates Continue to Drop?

2:00

An interesting look at the U.S. birth rate was released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) last week. In a nut shell, the U.S. birth rate remains at an all-time low, women are waiting longer to have children, teenagers having kids is at a historic low, C-sections are on the decline as well as preterm births, fewer unmarried women are having babies but the birth rate for twins is up by 2 percent.

Let’s look at the breakdown on these noteworthy findings.

While the U.S. birth rate remained at an all-time low in 2013, some experts expect that trend to change as the economy improves.

"By 2016 and 2017, I think we'll start seeing a real comeback," said Dr. Aaron Caughey, chair of obstetrics and gynecology for Oregon Health & Science University in Portland. "While the economy is doing better, you're still going to see a lag effect of about a year, and 2014 is the first year our economy really started to feel like it's getting back to normal."

More than 3.9 millions babies were born in 2013 and while that sounds like a lot, it’s down a little less than 1 percent from the year before.

Along with fewer births, there’s also been a decline in the general fertility rate - by about 1 percent- for women ages 15 to 44, reaching another record all-time low.

Women are waiting longer to start a family. Some experts believe that the economy may be having an impact on that statistic as well. The average age of first motherhood rose to 26 from 25.8 in 2013. Not a huge increase, but an indicator that younger women have a lot going on in their lives and want to wait a little longer before having their first child.

"You had people right out of college having a much harder time getting a first job, and so you're going to see a lot more delay among those people with their first child," Caughey said.

Birth rates for women in their 20s declined to record lows in 2013, but rose for women in their 30s and late 40s. The rate for women in their early 40s was unchanged.

"If you look at the birth rates across age, for women in their 20s, the decline over these births may not be births forgone so much as births delayed," said report co-author Brady Hamilton, a statistician/demographer with the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics.

Teens seem to be getting the message that having a child is something they need to think long and hard about. The good news is that the teenage birth rate is at an all-time low. Rates fell for teens in nearly all-ethnic groups by about 10 percent from 2012.

"It is just an absolutely remarkable trend," Hamilton said. "We are reaching record lows, and it's really quite amazing."

What is causing the sharp decline is still up for debate, but Hamilton believes that newer policies and programs may be educating teens better about the dangers to their health and life goals if they become pregnant at too young an age. More access to birth control may also be having an impact.

The jump in twin birth rates by 2 percent is an area for concern for many experts in the health field. 

"Twins have worse outcomes, and we really hope over the next few years we'll be able to see a reduction in that rate," Caughey said. "We really want to encourage people to be more engaged when they are considering fertility treatments, to reduce the risk of any multiple births,"

Twins births may be on the way up, but the triplet and multiple birth rate dropped another 4 percent in 2013.

The CDC’s report also noted these other changes:

•       Preterm birth rate (before 37 weeks) declined in 2013 to 11.39 percent, continuing a steady decrease since 2006. Caughey chalked this up to a drop in late-preterm deliveries.

•       Cesarean delivery rate, which had been stable at 32.8 percent for 2010 through 2012, declined to 32.7 percent of all U.S. births in 2013. "The C-section rate has leveled off at a rate that's too high," Caughey said. "We feel there's a real need for the C-section rate to decline even more."

•       Birth rate for unmarried women fell for the fifth consecutive year, to 44.3 per 1,000 unmarried women ages 15 to 44 in 2013. The rate was 1 percent lower in 2013 than the year before.

Whether it’s the economy, college debt, better education for teens or lower fertility rates, the U.S. birth rate is going down.  If the economy continues to improve over the next couple of years, it’ll be interesting to see if this baby decline changes to a baby boom.

Source: Dennis Thompson, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20150115/us-birth-rate-continues-decline-cdc-reports

Your Baby

Mom and Baby Benefit by Skin-to-Skin Contact Right After Birth

1:30

Over the years, modern birth methods have changed how newborns and mothers interact with each other. Typically, the baby is cleaned up and wrapped in a blanket then given to the mother to hold. A new scientific review suggests that skin-to-skin contact is better for the mother and gives her infant a better start in life.

The review noted that women who had skin-to-skin contact with their naked babies soon after delivery were more likely to breastfeed longer and be breastfeeding months later than women who didn't have their babies placed on their skin right away.

"The more you can do to place the mother and baby together and disturb them as little possible during that first hour, the better off they’ll be," said lead author Elizabeth Moore, of the School of Nursing at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.

Researchers looked through medical literature and found 46 randomized controlled trials to include in their review. The trials included 3,850 women and their newborns from 21 countries. All babies were healthy and most were born at term.

"We compared those trials to usual care, and usual care was very different depending on the trial," said Moore. Trials from the 1970s may have separated mothers from their babies for hours. In more modern trials, babies might be swaddled in a blanket before being handed to the mother.

Moore and her team found evidence that babies who had received skin-to-skin contact were more likely to breastfeed successfully during their very first breastfeeding session, and they also tended to have higher blood glucose levels and stronger heart and lung function.

 “It’s just something that if at all possible should happen," Moore told Reuters Health.

Skin-to-skin contact should begin as soon as possible and last for at least 60 minutes, she said. The hour will give babies time to recover from the birthing experience, find the mother's nipple and latch on.

"It’s not something you can do in just 15 minutes," Moore said.

Not all physicians and hospitals are on board when it comes to immediate skin-to-skin contact after birth.

“I would recommend that a woman make sure she adds skin-to-skin to her birth plan," Moore said. "I think it’s a really good thing for a woman to put together a birth plan before she heads to the hospital and show it to her physicians or midwife."

What if your baby is premature or is delivered by cesarean? The researchers didn't find any benefits to initiating skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth versus after the baby had been examined and washed. They also failed to find any clear benefits to skin-to-skin contact that lasted longer than an hour.

"The evidence supports that early [skin-to-skin contact] should be normal practice for healthy newborns," the researchers wrote, "including those born by cesarean and babies born early at 35 weeks or more."

The review was published in the Cochrane Library in November. 

Story sources: Andrew M. Seaman, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-birth-skin-idUSKBN13V2UZ

Kenza Moller, https://www.romper.com/p/why-skin-to-skin-contact-after-birth-could-be-beneficial-for-mothers-babies-alike-24423

 

Your Child

Is Sleepwalking Inherited?

1:45

If you walk in your sleep, there’s a good chance that your child may do the same.

A recent Canadian study found that children of two sleepwalking parents have more than a 60 percent chance of developing the same condition.  For children of one sleepwalking parent, the odds were about 47 percent they too would be sleepwalkers.

"These findings point to a strong genetic influence on sleepwalking and, to a lesser degree, sleep terrors," the Canadian study authors wrote. "Parents who have been sleepwalkers in the past, particularly in cases where both parents have been sleepwalkers, can expect their children to sleepwalk and thus should prepare adequately."

It’s not uncommon for children to walk in their sleep when they are young, but they typically stop by the time they reach adolescents.  It usually happens when someone is going from the deep stage of sleep to the lighter stage. The sleepwalker can't respond during the event and usually doesn't remember it. In some cases, he may talk and not make sense. Sleepwalking can also start later in life according to researchers.

Sleep terrors are another condition that typically affects only children. They can be very disturbing for a parent to witness. A child may scream out during sleep and is intensely fearful.

In the new study, Dr. Jacques Montplaisir, of Hospital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, and colleagues examined connections between these conditions in parents and adults. They looked at almost 2,000 kids born in Quebec from 1997 to 1998.

The researchers found that 56 percent of the children (aged 1.5 to 13 years) had sleep terrors. Younger children were more likely to have sleep terrors, the study noted. Sleepwalking, meanwhile, affected 29 percent of kids aged 2.5 to 13 years. Sleepwalking was less common in the youngest kids, according to the study.

The odds of sleepwalking grew, depending on whether one or both parents were sleepwalkers. Only 23 percent of kids whose parents didn't sleepwalk developed the disorder.

According to the National Sleep Foundation, there is no specific treatment for sleepwalking.  Creating a safe sleep environment is critical to preventing injury during sleepwalking episodes. For example, if your child sleepwalks, don’t let him or her sleep in a bunk bed. Also, remove any sharp or breakable objects from the area near the bed, install gates on stairways, and lock the doors and windows in your home.

The study was published in the May edition of JAMA Pediatrics.

Sources: Randy Dotinga, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20150504/sleepwalking-parents-likely-to-have-sleepwalking-kids

http://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-disorders-problems/abnormal-sleep-behaviors/sleepwalking

 

 

 

Daily Dose

Being a Dad

1:30 to read

Seeing that this is the week of Father’s Day (have you made your card or shopped yet?), I thought this was a good time to discuss some recent data that might be of interest to men….especially those who may be planning a family in the near future. 

For years research has shown that maternal age may contribute to birth defects and chromosomal abnormalities, including Down’s syndrome.. It has also been known that a pregnant woman’s health and habits may also affect their unborn baby’s health, therefore  woman are instructed to stop smoking and drinking alcohol while trying to get pregnant as well as throughout their pregnancy.

Dr. Joanna Kitlinska a researcher from Georgetown University has been studying how men’s age as well as their habits might also impact a child.  Her findings have shown a link between men who are over 40 years- “advanced paternal age”  and the incidence of autism as compared to fathers under 30 years of age.  Studies have also found that older fathers are more  likely to have children who develop schizophrenia.  Researchers wonder if this link may be due to changes in a father’s genes as they age….but to date this is unclear. “Biological clocks” and a woman’s decision to delay a pregnancy until their career is established (or for a myriad of reasons) may now be a decision that men will face as well.  Could both aging eggs and sperm play a role in genetic abnormalities? 

Smoking seems to be another habit that may somehow affect a man’s sperm and could potentially lead to genetic abnormalities in a child. 

While fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are known to be found in women who have consumed alcohol throughout their pregnancy,  researchers have also noted that 3 out of 4 children diagnosed with FAS also have alcoholic fathers.   Could their father’s excessive use of alcohol have also played a role in their developing brain?  This association has been found even if the mother did not drink alcohol during her pregnancy. Again, did the alcohol affect a father’s sperm and genes which was passed on to their child?

So…bottom line, it is important that “fathers to be” are equally invested in a healthy lifestyle when they are planning on having children.  It goes without saying that smoking, drinking, and even obesity and stress are not good choices for anyone …..but the fact that these choices may affect a future child are good reasons for both fathers, and mothers to be aware of this research when they are planning a family. 

 

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