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Daily Dose

Homeopathic Medicine

1:30 to read

I am sitting here writing this while “sucking” on a honey-lemon throat lozenge and drinking hot tea…as it is certainly cough and cold season and unfortunately I woke up with a scratchy throat. I am trying to “pray” it away and drink enough tea to drown it out. While I am not sure it will work, drinking hot tea all day will not hurt you!

 

At the same time (multi-tasking) I am also reading an email from a mother with a 4 month old baby, and they are out of town. Her baby now has a fever and runny nose and she sent me a picture of a homeopathic product for “mucus and cold relief” and wonders if it is safe to give to her infant.  The short answer is NO…even though the product says BABY on the label and has a picture of an infant.

 

Although homeopathic medicines were first used in the 18th century and are “probably safe” it is still unclear if they really work. Unfortunately,  there have been adverse events and deaths associated with some products ( see articles on teething tablets). The principle of homeopathy is that “ailments can be cured by taking small amounts of products that, in large amounts, would cause the very symptom you are treating. In other words, “like cures like” as these products contain “natural ingredients” that cause the symptoms that you are trying to treat, but that have been so diluted as to hopefully stimulate your body’s immune system to fight that very symptom. In this case, congestion and runny nose due to a cold.

 

So…I looked at all of the ingredients which included Byronia, Euphrasia, Hepar and Natrum…to name a few. Byronia is used as a laxative for constipation, Euphrasia is supposed to help with inflammation, Hepar is for people who tend to get “cold and therefore cranky and irritable” and Natrum is used for inflammation due to “too much lactic acid”.  This is the short version. The bottle also says contains less than 0.1% alcohol, but it has alcohol! 

 

While the FDA does monitor how homeopathic medications are made, they do not require these companies to show proof that these medications do what they say they do, as they are “natural”.   With that being said, natural does not always mean effective or safe.  Just as over the counter cold and cough medications are not recommended for children under the age of 2, I too would not recommend homeopathic products be given to an infant.

 

Best treatment for a cold and cough in young children?  Use a saline nasal spray followed by nasal suctioning to relieve the nasal congestion and mucus. I would also use a cool mist humidifier in the baby’s room to keep moisture in the air and help thin the mucus ( especially once the heat is on in the house). Make sure the baby is still taking fluids (breast or bottle) but you may also add some electrolyte solution to give your baby extra fluids if you feel as if they are not eating as well.  Lastly, always watch for any respiratory distress or prolonged fever and check in with your pediatrician!

Your Child

New Flu Vaccine for 2015-2016

1:45

Last year’s flu vaccine wasn’t as effective as previous vaccines, but this year’s vaccine should be a much better match according to Dr. Tom Frieden, Director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.   

Typically, the vaccine is 50 to 60 percent effective, making your chances of getting the flu reduced by as much as 60 percent if you get a flu shot.

This year’s flu vaccine contains the H3N2 strain, Frieden said. Last year's vaccine was only 13 percent effective against the H3N2 strain. As a result, "more seniors were hospitalized for the flu than ever before."

What's more, 145 children died from the flu, Frieden said, adding that the actual number was "probably much higher since many flu deaths aren't reported."

About 50 percent of the American population gets vaccinated every flu season. That includes pregnant women. More people, including pregnant women, need to be vaccinated, Frieden said.

The CDC recommends that everyone 6 months of age and older get the flu shot every year.

Frieden said there's an adequate supply of flu vaccine this year. Companies are expected to make 170 million doses of vaccine, of which 40 million have already been distributed, he said.

People at risk of flu-related complications include young children, especially those younger than 2 years; people over 65; pregnant women; and people with chronic health problems, such as asthma, heart disease and diabetes, as well as those with weakened immune systems, according to the CDC.

Most seasonal flu activity typically occurs between October and May. Flu activity most commonly peaks in the United States between December and February.

Children younger than 6 months are at higher risk of serious flu complications, but are too young to get a flu vaccine. Because of this, safeguarding them from flu is especially important. If you live with or care for an infant younger than 6 months of age you should get a flu vaccine to help protect them from flu.

It takes about two weeks after vaccination for antibodies to develop in the body and provide protection against the flu.

The CDC encourages people to get a flu shot preferably by October. Those children aged 6 months through 8 years who need two doses of vaccine should receive the first dose as soon as possible to allow time to get the second dose before the start of flu season. The two doses should be given at least four weeks apart.

During this flu season:

•       Intramuscular (IM) vaccines will be available in both trivalent and quadrivalent formulations. (High dose vaccines, which are IM vaccines, will all be trivalent this season.)

•       For people who are 18 through 64 years old, a jet injector can be used for delivery of one particular trivalent flu vaccine.

•       Nasal spray vaccines will all be quadrivalent this season.

•       Intradermal vaccine will all be quadrivalent.

The quadrivalent flu vaccine is designed to protect against four different flu viruses; two influenza A viruses and two influenza B viruses.

It’s hard to believe that we’re about to head into the flu season, particularly with so many states still experiencing summer like weather. But we are, and getting a flu shot early can help protect you and your family from a virus no one wants to get.

Sources: Steven Reinberg, http://consumer.healthday.com/infectious-disease-information-21/flu-news-314/no-embargo-this-year-s-flu-vaccine-better-match-703392.html

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season-2015-2016.htm

Parenting

Mumps Reach 10 Year High; Hitting Colleges and Kids Hard

1:45

Mumps are making a comeback, particularly on college campuses and in daycare centers.

A recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report shows that mumps are at a 10-year high. As of November, 45 states and the District of Columbia had reported a total of 2,879 mumps infections — more than double the mumps cases reported in 2015.

Mumps is a contagious disease caused by a virus. Common symptoms can include swollen glands in front of and below the ear or under the jaw, pain with opening and closing the jaw, fever, fatigue and malaise, headache and earache.

Currently, college campuses are taking the brunt of the mumps outbreak.

Dr. Michael Grosso, medical director and CMO of Huntington Hospital/Northwell Health, said close quarters such as dormitory living, can make it easier to pick up the virus.

“It’s spread through respiratory secretions, coughing, sneezing, close contact and sharing the same cups and utensils,” Grosso told CBS News.

Some colleges, such as The University of Missouri’s Columbia, are asking students to restrict their social activities and to make sure they get immunized. Typically, two doses of vaccine are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the CDC, but the school is asking students to get a third measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine “based on discussions with public health officials and consistent with guidance from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.”

College students aren’t the only ones being hit hard by mumps; younger children are also experiencing a rise in reported cases. More parents have opted-out of getting their children the MMR vaccine - putting non-immunized children at a higher risk.

Daycare centers are similar to college dormitories in that they provide an environment where a virus can be easily spread.

While most mumps cases are mild, albeit, uncomfortable, others can be more serious.

“Most individuals recover uneventfully from mumps, however as many as 10 percent of males who get mumps will get an inflammation of the testes which can lead to permanent sterility,” Grosso said.

The brain can also be affected. About 1 percent of people who come down with the mumps get serious brain infections and can experience meningitis, encephalitis and deafness associated with a brain infection.

“That small risk was behind the original impetus to create a vaccine,” Grosso said.

 Physicians are urging students to get the immunizations and to practice good hygiene. Simple steps such as covering your cough or sneeze, washing your hands with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, avoiding sharing food, drinks, cups or utensils can help prevent the spread of viruses.

Vaccines are still the most effective way to lower your risk of getting the mumps.  No vaccine is a 100 percent protective, Grosso notes, but it can help you avoid the risk of serious illness and lifelong health issues.

“Receiving two doses of mumps vaccines is said to confer about an 88 percent reduction in risk of getting mumps if you’re exposed,” said Grosso. A third dose may increase those odds.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the first dose of MMR vaccine should be administered between 12 and 15 months of age, and the second dose between 4 to 6 years of age.

Grosso emphasizes that parents need to get their children vaccinated early.

“Being immunized late is better than not being immunized ever. But being immunized late is not nearly as good as being immunized on time,” Grosso said.

Story sources: Mary Brophy Marcus, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/mumps-cases-10-year-high-college-outbreaks-vaccination/

https://www.cdc.gov/mumps/

Your Toddler

Does Parents’ Obesity Impact Toddlers’ Developmental Skills?

2:00

Children, whose parents are obese, may show signs of developmental delays by the time they are 3 years old, according to a new study.

The specific developmental problems seem to differ depending on whether the mother, father or both parents are obese, according to researchers from the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

"Specifically, mothers' obesity was associated with a delay in achieving fine-motor skills, and fathers' obesity in achieving personal and social skills -- that includes skills for interacting with others," said lead researcher Edwina Yeung. She's an investigator in the institute's division of intramural population health research.

"When both parents were obese, it meant longer time to develop problem-solving skills," she added.

Not everyone agrees with the researchers’ conclusion. At least one pediatric neurologist suggests that the results don’t necessarily prove a direct cause and effect.

And Yeung acknowledges the same. "We used observational data, which doesn't allow us to prove cause and effect, per se," she explained.

What the researchers found was interesting though. Compared with children of normal-weight mothers, children of obese mothers were 67 percent more likely to fail a test of fine-motor skills (using their hands and fingers) by age 3.

In addition, children of obese fathers were about 71 percent more likely to fail tests of personal and social skills, which may indicate how well they relate to and interact with others, by age 3, the researchers said.

Children whose mother and father were both obese were nearly three times more likely to fail tests of problem-solving ability by age 3, according to the researchers’ findings.

Most research into understanding child health and development has focused on mothers and their pregnancies. "Our findings suggest that factors from fathers may also play a role and deserve attention," Yeung said.

One child health expert doesn't think obese parents should be overly concerned by this study.

"Children of obese parents are not doomed to have developmental problems," said Dr. Ian Miller. He is a pediatric neurologist and director of Neuroinformatics at Nicklaus Children's Hospital in Miami.

There’s a long list of other conditions that can also impact the brain such as lead-poisoning, sickle cell disease, iron-deficiency anemia, autism, epilepsy or cerebral palsy—any of which can cause developmental problems, Miller said. He isn't ready, however, to add obesity to that list.

But, obesity may increase the risks of these health problems, Miller says. The probability for developmental problems is low among all children, including those of obese parents. "It's not a 'sky is falling' type of scenario," he said.

For the study, Yeung and her colleagues collected data on more than 5,000 women and their children who were part of the Upstate KIDS study, which sought to determine if fertility treatments could affect child development from birth through age 3.

The women were enrolled in the study about four months after giving birth in New York state, excluding New York City, between 2008 and 2010.

About one in five pregnant women in the United States is overweight or obese, Yeung said.

To check the children's development, parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire after doing a series of activities with their children, Yeung said.

The test doesn't diagnose specific problems, but is a screen for potential problems, so that children can be referred for further testing, she explained.

The children were tested at 4 months and six more times through age 3 years. Mothers also gave information on their health and weight, both before and after pregnancy, and the weight of their partners, Yeung said.

More studies are needed to further examine if there is a link between obese parents and their offspring’s developmental skills, Yeung said.

The report was published online Jan. 2 in the journal Pediatrics.

Story Source: Steven Reinberg, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20170103/can-parents-weight-hinder-toddlers-development#1

Your Child

ATV Accidents Causing Serious Chest Injuries in Kids

1:45

From rural America to the suburbs, you can count on the sound of children and their new ATV buzzing up and down the street on Christmas morning. All-terrain vehicles are a popular gift during the holidays, and more often than not, you’ll see children with a safety helmet on to reduce the risk of head trauma – should they have an accident.

What parents may not know is that these vehicles also pose a high risk for severe chest injuries, according to a new study.

"I believe that many parents are unaware of how serious ATV-related injuries can be," said the study's author, Dr. Kelly Hagedorn, a radiology resident at McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

"Some parents view ATVs as being more similar to bicycles. However, many of the injury patterns are more similar to those sustained in motor vehicle collisions," Hagedorn explained.

ATVs are motorized recreational vehicles with three or four tires, designed for off-road use. Because they can weigh 300 to 400 pounds and travel at speeds of up to 75 miles an hour, ATVs can often be involved in serious accidents, including crashes, rollovers and ejections, the researchers said.

The good news is that ATV-related injuries have declined since 2007. As public safety awareness about ATVs increases, more parents are making sure that helmets, protective clothing and personal oversight safeguard their children.

However, nearly 25,000 children under the age of 16 were treated for ATV-related injuries in hospital emergency rooms nationwide in 2014, according to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).

Researchers suspect that one of the reasons children’s ATV-related chest injuries are becoming more severe and frequent is that the newer vehicles are larger and weigh more than their predecessors. 

"As ATVs have gotten bigger and heavier, riders have a harder time separating from the vehicle in a crash," said Gerene Denning. She's director of emergency medicine research at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine.

"The increasing size and weight of ATVs leads to more cases of the vehicle striking the rider. There is also a growing trend of riders being pinned by the vehicle, which can lead to compression asphyxia [a condition where the body doesn't get enough oxygen]," said Denning, who wasn't involved in this study.

The new study included records from 455 patients, 18 years old and younger. All had chest imaging at a trauma center in Houston after ATV-related incidents. The accidents occurred between 1992 and 2013. Of those admitted, 102 (22%) suffered a chest injury.

The researchers said that 40% of patients with chest injuries were treated in an intensive care unit (ICU), compared to 22% of patients without chest injuries. On average, patients with chest injuries were 13 years old.

The most common chest injury (61%) was pulmonary contusion, or bruising of the lung. About 45% of patients had a collapsed lung and 34% had rib fractures. Eight deaths occurred among the 102 patients who had chest trauma, the study found.

The study authors found that the biggest cause of chest injury was rollover (43%), followed by collision with landscape (2 %) and falls (16%).

In 41 cases, the injured child had been driving the ATV. In 33 cases, he or she had been riding along as a passenger. In the remaining 28 cases, it wasn't known whether the injured child was the driver or passenger.

While many parents are being more vigilant about ATV safety, some still believe bigger is better and are still allowing their children to operate adult-size vehicles.

"This increases both the risk of crashing and the severity of vehicle-related trauma," Denning said. "A group called Concerned Families for ATV Safety have story after story of children killed in ATV crashes. A common thread through those stories is a parent saying they didn't know how dangerous these vehicles were for their children."

ATV laws are not consistent nationwide. In many states, children younger than 16 can drive ATVs designed for adults, according to the CPSC. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children under that age be prohibited from riding ATVs.

Hagedorn is scheduled to present the study results at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, in Chicago. Findings presented at meetings are generally viewed as preliminary until they've been published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Concerned Families for ATV Safety, mentioned above, offers educational resources, news and ATV safety tips for parents. It also shares family stories of children injured or killed in an ATV accident. Their website is: http://www.cfatvsafety.org

Story source: Don Rauf, https://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/child-safety-news-587/atv-accidents-can-cause-serious-chest-injuries-in-children-717207.html

Your Child

Stuttering and Kids

1:45

Does your child stutter? If so, he or she is not alone. More than 70 million people worldwide stutter.  Many famous people have been stutters such as musician and singer, Ann Wilson, from the band Heart, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and actor and orator James Earl Jones, to name just a few.

Stuttering is a common communication disorder that affects more boys than girls. No one knows the exact cause of stuttering, but there are four factors that most likely contribute:

  • Genetics: About 60 percent of those that stutter have a family member that stutters.
  • Neurophysiology: People that stutter may process speech and language slightly differently than those who do not stutter.  Stroke, head trauma or any other type of brain injury can also contribute to stuttering.
  • Child development: Developmental stuttering occurs in young children while they are still learning speech and language skills. It is the most common form of stuttering. Some scientists and clinicians believe that developmental stuttering occurs when children’s speech and language abilities are unable to meet the child’s verbal demands.
  • Family dynamics: Pressure, tension, fast paced lifestyles and stress within the family unit can make it difficult for a child to communicate.

There’s no miracle cure for stuttering but there are therapies that, over time, can help children and teens make significant progress towards fluency.

It’s important to remember that it’s normal for kids to stutter occasionally.

A child may stutter for a few weeks or several months, and the stuttering may be sporadic. Most kids, who begin stuttering before the age of 5, stop without any need for interventions such as speech or language therapy.

If your child is 5-years-old and still stuttering, you might want to have him or her tested by a speech pathologist or you can talk with your pediatrician for more information.

Kidshealth.org offers these tips for parents looking to help to help their child. How you communicate with your child when they stutter can have an important impact on how they see themselves.

  • Don't require your child to speak precisely or correctly at all times. Allow talking to be fun and enjoyable.
  • Use family meals as a conversation time. Avoid distractions such as radio or TV.
  • Avoid corrections or criticisms such as "slow down," "take your time," or "take a deep breath." These comments, however well intentioned, will only make your child feel more self-conscious.
  • Avoid having your child speak or read aloud when uncomfortable or when the stuttering increases. Instead, during these times encourage activities that do not require a lot of talking.
  • Don't interrupt your child or tell him or her to start over.
  • Don't tell your child to think before speaking.
  • Provide a calm atmosphere in the home. Try to slow down the pace of family life.
  • Speak slowly and clearly when talking to your child or others in his or her presence.
  • Maintain natural eye contact with your child. Try not to look away or show signs of being upset.
  • Let your child speak for himself or herself and to finish thoughts and sentences. Pause before responding to your child's questions or comments.
  • Talk slowly to your child. This takes practice! Modeling a slow rate of speech will help with your child's fluency.

Many successful adults were stutterers when they were young, some - even into adulthood. However, they have persevered and with the support of others and therapies, have brought their stuttering under control. If your child stutters, it doesn’t mean they have a lifetime disability; many children grow out of stuttering. If you’re concerned about your child, talk with your pediatrician or family physician.

Story sources: http://www.stutteringhelp.org

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/stutter.html#

 

Parenting

Flour with Added Folic Acid Is Reducing Birth Defects

2:00

Folic acid is a B vitamin that is known to help prevent certain types of birth defects in newborns. In January 1998, the FDA added a requirement that folic acid be added to breads, cereals, and other products that use enriched flour. These fortified foods include most enriched breads, flours, corn meals, rice, noodles, macaroni, and other grain products.

Since then, a new report shows that serious birth defects have fallen 35 percent. While that is certainly wonderful news, a 2014 study found that as many as 25 percent of American women are still not receiving even the minimum amount of recommended folic acid from either their diet or through supplements.

Women who don't get enough folic acid have an elevated risk of giving birth to a child with conditions called neural tube defects, the best known of which is spina bifida, which often causes paralysis.

Health experts began recommending that women of childbearing age take folic acid in 1992 because studies showed that taking 400 micrograms a day could reduce spina bifida and related birth defects by up to 70%.

Doctors now recommend that women who are considering having children start taking folic acid before trying to get pregnant. Since some pregnancies are not necessarily planned, many doctors recommend that women of childbearing age take a daily multivitamin that contains folic acid.

The benefits of folic acid have been researched for quite some time and since food producers began adding folic acid to grains, that simple step has prevented more than 1,300 babies a year from being born with spina bifida or related conditions, according to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Authors of the new study found that Hispanic women are more likely to have a baby with spina bifida or a similar birth defect.

That's partly because the "masa harina" corn flour used in tortillas and other Hispanic foods isn't fortified with folic acid, the study says. The March of Dimes has petitioned the FDA to require that folic acid be added to corn flour. Adding folic acid to corn flour would prevent another 40 cases of spina bifida or related conditions each year, the report says.

"Even with fortification, there will be some women that do not get the recommended amount of folic acid every day," says Candice Burns Hoffmann, of the CDC's National Centers for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. "We still have more work to do."

If you’re considering having a baby, talk to your doctor before becoming pregnant about the benefits of folic acid and how much you may need.

Sources: Liz Szabo, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2015/01/15/folic-acid-birth-defects/21784019/

http://www.spinabifidaassociation.org

Your Baby

Mom and Baby Benefit by Skin-to-Skin Contact Right After Birth

1:30

Over the years, modern birth methods have changed how newborns and mothers interact with each other. Typically, the baby is cleaned up and wrapped in a blanket then given to the mother to hold. A new scientific review suggests that skin-to-skin contact is better for the mother and gives her infant a better start in life.

The review noted that women who had skin-to-skin contact with their naked babies soon after delivery were more likely to breastfeed longer and be breastfeeding months later than women who didn't have their babies placed on their skin right away.

"The more you can do to place the mother and baby together and disturb them as little possible during that first hour, the better off they’ll be," said lead author Elizabeth Moore, of the School of Nursing at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.

Researchers looked through medical literature and found 46 randomized controlled trials to include in their review. The trials included 3,850 women and their newborns from 21 countries. All babies were healthy and most were born at term.

"We compared those trials to usual care, and usual care was very different depending on the trial," said Moore. Trials from the 1970s may have separated mothers from their babies for hours. In more modern trials, babies might be swaddled in a blanket before being handed to the mother.

Moore and her team found evidence that babies who had received skin-to-skin contact were more likely to breastfeed successfully during their very first breastfeeding session, and they also tended to have higher blood glucose levels and stronger heart and lung function.

 “It’s just something that if at all possible should happen," Moore told Reuters Health.

Skin-to-skin contact should begin as soon as possible and last for at least 60 minutes, she said. The hour will give babies time to recover from the birthing experience, find the mother's nipple and latch on.

"It’s not something you can do in just 15 minutes," Moore said.

Not all physicians and hospitals are on board when it comes to immediate skin-to-skin contact after birth.

“I would recommend that a woman make sure she adds skin-to-skin to her birth plan," Moore said. "I think it’s a really good thing for a woman to put together a birth plan before she heads to the hospital and show it to her physicians or midwife."

What if your baby is premature or is delivered by cesarean? The researchers didn't find any benefits to initiating skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth versus after the baby had been examined and washed. They also failed to find any clear benefits to skin-to-skin contact that lasted longer than an hour.

"The evidence supports that early [skin-to-skin contact] should be normal practice for healthy newborns," the researchers wrote, "including those born by cesarean and babies born early at 35 weeks or more."

The review was published in the Cochrane Library in November. 

Story sources: Andrew M. Seaman, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-birth-skin-idUSKBN13V2UZ

Kenza Moller, https://www.romper.com/p/why-skin-to-skin-contact-after-birth-could-be-beneficial-for-mothers-babies-alike-24423

 

Parenting

Pregnancy May Actually Modify a Mom’s Brain

Baby, motherhood, health

Moms often feel like they have a “sixth sense” when it comes to their newborn’s needs and survival. What they may really be experiencing are the physical changes that pregnancy can have on the brain.

Researchers in Spain wanted to know if pregnancy could actually change the structure of a woman’s brain, impacting how she reacts to her newborn. What they found was that long-term changes to the brain do occur and that they may have evolved over time to improve a mother’s ability to protect and nurture her child.

The researchers used information gathered from MRI scans that compared the brain structures of 25 women before and after their first pregnancies.

After giving birth, the women had significant reductions of gray matter in areas of the brain associated with social interactions, the findings showed. Those brain regions overlapped with ones that activated when mothers watched images of their own babies.

“The changes concern brain areas associated with functions necessary to manage the challenges of motherhood," study co-lead author Erika Barba said in a news release from the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

Some women feel like they have trouble remembering things during and after their pregnancy, sometimes referred to as having “baby brain.” The good news is that researchers reported the participants had no changes in memory or other thinking functions during pregnancy. That means the loss of gray matter does not lead to problems in those areas. The brain changes, which lasted for at least two years after the women gave birth, probably help them adapt to motherhood, the study authors suggested.

According to study co-director Oscar Vilarroya: "The findings point to an adaptive process related to the benefits of better detecting the needs of the child, such as identifying the newborn's emotional state. Moreover, they provide primary clues regarding the neural basis of motherhood, perinatal mental health and brain plasticity in general."

Researchers also found that they were able to use the brain changes to predict a mother’s attachment to her baby. The changes were similar whether women got pregnant naturally or through fertility treatments.

This is the first research to show that pregnancy involves long-lasting changes -- at least for two years postpartum.

The term “mama bear” has often been used to describe the fierceness that some mothers’ exhibit when they feel their child is in danger or has been wronged. Now science may have found out why that is.

The study was published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.

Story source: Robert Preidt, http://www.webmd.com/baby/news/20161219/pregnancy-may-spur-mothering-changes-in-a-womans-brain

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