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Your Baby

Happier Mom - Less Colicky Baby?

1:30

There’s an old saying that husbands have used many times, “happy wife, happy life.” Now it seems there may be a new saying about to trend, “happy mom, less colicky baby.” It doesn’t have the rhyme or snappy cadence, but it may be true none the less, according to recent research.

In a new study of 3,000 mothers, relationship happiness, a solid support system and an involved partner were found to protect against colic -- defined as crying or fussiness three or more hours a day.

"Maybe the baby cries less if the mom and dad are happier," or mothers in happy relationships may not view their baby's crying negatively and may not report it as colic, suggested study senior author Kristen Kjerulff of Penn State College of Medicine. 

Having a supportive partner and receiving support from friends and family were also associated with a lower risk of colic, according to the study.

The participants were ages 18 to 35 years old and gave birth at 75 hospitals in Pennsylvania between January 2009 and April 2011. Nearly 12 percent of the mothers said their infants were colicky.

However, the happier a woman said she was with her relationship with her partner during and after pregnancy, the lower the risk of colic in her infant. This was true even among women with postpartum depression and among those whose partner was not their baby's biological father, the study reported.

Interestingly, the research showed that babies of single mothers had the lowest rate of colic. The single women reported having higher levels of general social support.

"If you don't have a partner, you can still have lots of social support, lots of love and lots of happy relationships, and all of that's going to be better for the baby," said Kjerulff, a professor of public health sciences.

Other research has linked increased colic in babies with a mother’s anxiety and lack of support during pregnancy, as well as post partum depression.

The study does not prove a causal relationship between happier mothers and less colicky babies, but an association between the two.

The study results were published recently in the journal Child: Care, Health and Development.

Story source: Robert Preidt, https://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/colic-health-news-139/happy-mom-means-less-colicky-baby-722007.html

Your Baby

Reading to Infants has Long-Term Benefits

1:30

Children love to have stories read to them. The words and pictures excite their growing imaginations and according to a new study, may improve their learning capabilities when they start elementary school.

The researchers followed more than 250 children from the age of 6 months to 54 months. The investigators found that kids whose mothers started reading to them in early infancy had better vocabulary and reading skills four years later, just before the start of elementary school.

"These findings are exciting because they suggest that reading to young children, beginning even in early infancy, has a lasting effect on language, literacy and early reading skills," said lead author Carolyn Cates. She is a research assistant professor in the department of pediatrics at New York University School of Medicine. 

"What they're learning when you read with them as infants still has an effect four years later when they're about to begin elementary school," she explained in a news release from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP.)

The findings show the importance of programs that promote parent-infant book reading soon after birth, Cates said.

Reading to your child not only improves academic achievement, but also builds a more supportive and stronger bond between a child and parent or caregiver. Snuggling up with a book lets the two of you slow down and experience unique moments together.

Reading aloud to your little one also helps baby or toddler learn basic speech skills by reinforcing the sounds of language.

Remember, every book (even ones that are read and over – and there will be many- as your child develops favorites!) is a unique opportunity to give your baby an advantage later in life when learning skills are put to the test.

The study is scheduled for presentation May 8 at the Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in San Francisco. Research presented at meetings is considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Story sources: Robert Preidt, https://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/child-development-news-124/reading-to-babies-translates-into-more-literate-preschoolers-722224.html

https://www.earlymoments.com/promoting-literacy-and-a-love-of-reading/why-reading-to-children-is-important/

Your Baby

Should You Let Your Baby Cry Itself to Sleep?

1:30

As any parent of an infant will tell you- sleep is a precious thing. So, what’s the best way to get your baby to sleep through the night? There are many ways to help baby drop off to dreamland, but two of the most common had researchers wondering if there might be long-term harm resulting from these techniques.

Turns out, they was nothing to worry about.

The study tested two methods; graduated extinction and bedtime fading.

Graduated extinction is more commonly known as controlled-crying or letting baby cry his or herself to sleep while learning how to self-soothe without parental involvement

Bedtime fading is keeping baby awake longer to help them drop of more quickly.

Researchers discovered that both techniques work and neither had any long-term negative effects.

The graduated extinction approach also showed babies waking up fewer times during the night.

Parents worry about the controlled-crying method, in particular, according to study leader Michael Gradisar, a clinical psychologist at Flinders University, in Adelaide, Australia.

With that technique, parents resist the urge to immediately respond to their baby’s nighttime cries, so he or she can learn to self-soothe. Some parents worry that will damage their baby emotionally, and possibly cause "attachment" problems or other issues in the long run, Gradisar explained.

But, he said, his team found no evidence that was the case.

For the study, the researchers randomly assigned parents of 43 babies to one of three groups: one that started practicing controlled crying; one that took up bedtime fading; and a third, "control" group that was just given information on healthy sleep.

The babies ranged in age from 6 months to 16 months. All had a "sleep problem," according to their parents.

Parents in the controlled-crying group were given a basic plan: When their baby woke up crying during the night, they had to wait a couple of minutes before responding. They could then go comfort, but not pick up, the baby.

Over time, parents gradually let their baby cry for longer periods before responding.

Bedtime fading is a "gentler" approach, according to Gradisar: The aim is to help babies fall asleep more quickly by putting them down later.

Parents in that study group were told to delay their baby's bedtime for a few nights -- to 7:15 p.m. instead of 7 p.m., for instance. If the baby was still having trouble falling asleep, bedtime could be pushed back another 15 minutes.

After three months, the researchers found, babies in both sleep-training groups were falling asleep faster when their parents put them down -- between 10 and 13 minutes faster, on average. On the other hand, there was little change in the control group.

A year after the study's start, children in the three groups had similar rates of behavioral and emotional issues. They were also similar in their "attachment" to their parents -- which was gauged during standard tests at the research center.

Experts say that infants are usually able to sleep longer through the night, as they get a little older. By the age of 6 months, 80 percent of infants sleep all night. By 9 months, about 90 percent do.

If your baby doesn’t seem to be able to sleep through the night by those ages, contact your pediatrician to see if your little one may have a problem that needs checking out.

Story source: Amy Norton, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/news/20160524/what-really-works-to-help-baby-sleep

 

Your Baby

Spit-Cleaning Your Infant’s Binky

1.45 to read

Have you ever sucked on your baby’s pacifier to clean it? Many parents have. Babies drop their binkies all the time and if you’re in a hurry or just figure a little spit-cleaning won’t hurt, you’re more likely to stick it in your own mouth and give it a quick once over.

A new study out of Sweden says the spit-cleaning technique may actually help your infant avoid eczema and asthma.

“It was surprising that the effect was so strong,” says pediatric allergist Dr. Bill Hesselmar of Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden, lead author of the study published Monday in the journal Pediatrics.

The study involved 136 infants who used a pacifier in their first 6 months. 65 of the infants had parents that reported sucking the pacifier to clean it. In those children, both eczema and asthma were strongly reduced when they were examined at 18 months of age. At 36 months of age, the protective effect remained for eczema but not for asthma.

Scientists didn’t know why the sucking on the baby’s pacifier acted as a protector or whether it was filtering out germs. The technique didn’t have any impact on respiratory illness, meaning that the babies were not more likely to get a cold or the flu from their parents. Common sense would dictate that if you have a cold or the flu or any other contagious condition, then it’s not a good idea to suck on your baby’s binky. Otherwise, maybe it’s not such a bad idea.

Why is sucking on your infant’s pacifier possibly helpful in preventing asthma or eczema in your child? Scientists hypothesize that tiny organisms in the saliva of the parents may be why. Parent’s saliva introduces gut micoflora that live in the digestive tract of the baby. “We know that if infants have diverse microflora in the gut, then children will have less allergy and less eczema,” says Hesselmar. “When parents suck on the pacifier, they are transferring microflora to the child.”

Many pediatricians and family doctors are concerned that children are being “excessively cleaned” into illness. With anti-bacterial soaps and swipes being used on everything, and kids not allowed to get dirty, their immune system isn’t getting the workout it needs to help fight off common illnesses. The bacterial microorganisms provided in the parent’s saliva might help stimulate the baby’s immune system.

“The most exciting result was the eczema,” says Christine Johnson, chair of the public health department at Detroit’s Henry Ford Hospital. “I’m a bit more skeptical about the asthma findings because asthma is hard to measure before a child is five or six years old.”

Hesselmar also urges moms to lick the baby’s pacifier if their child was delivered by C-section. Vaginal delivered babies receive quite a bit of microbes during delivery. C-section babies can be more prone to allergies. “If they are using a pacifier and those parents think it’s OK to suck on the pacifier, then yes, I would recommend it,” Hesselmar says.

Some parents may find the idea of picking up a pacifier that’s fallen on the floor and putting it in their mouth kind of disgusting. That’s fine, there’s no need to worry about it. If the idea doesn’t bother you, all the better says Hesselmar, “I haven’t heard of anyone getting ill from it,” he says. “There isn’t much bacteria on the floor.”

Source: Barbara Mantel, http://www.today.com/moms/why-it-may-be-ok-spit-clean-your-babys-binkie-6C9773378

Daily Dose

Why Newborns Should Sleep on Their Backs

I received another e-mail today from a listener who was worried about her newborn’s sleep position and she also enclosed photos.I received another e-mail via our free iPhone App from a listener who was worried about her newborn’s sleep position and she also enclosed photos. (Just like I said last week, what did we all do as parents before we could send emails and attached pictures to ensure an accurate description!?).

She was concerned because her infant son, who is now about four-months-old, is “scooching” around in his bed and likes to get up against his bumpers. She has always put the baby down on his back, as recommended, and he has been comfortable in that position. She also has a ceiling fan in the room, as there was an article last year that showed that there were fewer SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) deaths among children who had a ceiling fan in their room. Lastly, he uses a pacifier as this was also found to be protective against SIDS in yet another study. In other words, she is doing all of the correct things to try and prevent SIDS. The current recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) state that an infant should be placed in the supine position on a firm mattress without soft bedding materials being placed in the crib. The baby should also not be overheated, so again blankets are not routinely recommended, but rather a sleep sack. Placing bumper pads in a crib for a newborn in the first several weeks of age is typically not problematic. The problem with bumper pads is that as an infant starts moving around the bed their heads may become lodged up against the bumper, as her son is doing, or their little head may even become entrapped under the bumper pad. Both of these in theory could obstruct an infant’s airway. So in the case of her child, I would recommend removing the bumper pads until he is older to eliminate even one variable in the SIDS puzzle. Despite the fact that the baby may prefer snuggling up to bumpers and pillows, the risk of SIDS is greatest in the first six months of an infant’s life. I know it is hard to be a sleep deprived parent, but the risks are just far too great to let your baby sleep on their tummies or with their heads buried in their bumpers or on a favorite large stuffed animal etc. This was a good question by an astute parent. Since the AAP recommended back sleeping in 1992, about 80% of children are now sleeping on their backs and the SIDS rate has dropped by over 40%. The only issue with back sleeping has been some head flattening that can be mitigated by having a baby get frequent “tummy time” off and on throughout the day (and those nights too when infants are still not sleeping). Many babies like their tummies when they are fussy, but once calmed and ready for sleep need to be turned over and put to sleep on their backs. Getting your baby into good sleep habits is important, but their sleep position is key! That’s your daily dose, we’ll chat again tomorrow. Send your question or comment to Dr. Sue now!

Daily Dose

Infant Food Recommendations May Be On The Way

A new year has begun and with that there often come changes, one of which may be in how infants are introduced to solid foods.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that infants be fed breast milk or formula exclusively before beginning solid foods between four and six months of age it is typically recommended that infants begin spoon feedings with an iron fortified cereal, such as rice cereal. After a baby has “learned” how to eat cereal from a spoon, other foods are started typically beginning with vegetables, followed by fruits and then meats. For many years I was taught that women who exclusively breast fed their infants for the first six months of life might be able to prevent allergic disease in their children. This was especially recommended for mothers who had a strong family history of allergies. Many pregnant and nursing mothers also restricted their dietary intake of peanuts, shellfish and other foods in hope that this too might help reduce allergies in their offspring. For many years it was recommended that children also be restricted from eating peanuts in hopes of preventing peanut allergies that were suddenly on the rise. What we did find is that we reduced the incidence of choking episodes from peanut aspiration, but peanut allergies continued to rise and I have no idea what children were eating for lunch seeing that my own children were raised on peanut butter and jelly sandwiches (cut in triangles I might add). Those recommendations changed several years ago, although many mothers still balk when I recommend peanut butter for their toddlers. Now, a study out of Finland, published in the December issue of Pediatrics Online, showed that the late introduction of solid foods is associated with an increased risk for allergic sensitization to foods and inhalant allergies in children at five years of age. Scientific evidence for delaying food introduction now seems to be pointing in the opposite direction. This study actually showed that by delaying the introduction of eggs, milk and cereal children were at increased risk for developing atopic dermatitis (eczema). The late introduction of fish and potatoes (go figure that one) led to more inhalant allergies. This was determined by drawing IgE levels in children at 5 years of age. So, there will be a lot of new studies being done to try and reproduce the Finnish data. New recommendations about infant feeding are already forthcoming from the AAP and should be published in February. In the meantime, I would not worry about introducing foods to your baby after five to six months of age as long as they are pureed and easy to swallow. You can still wait several days between starting new foods, but no need to be as limiting. There are many foods that we eat including numerous fruits and vegetables that may be pureed in a Cuisinart or blender or even mashed with a fork that are not offered in typical baby food jars. Why not feed your baby black eyed peas (remember we all need good luck), or avocado or mashed potatoes when you are fixing these foods for yourself. The broader the palate as an infant may encourage less picky eating later on. Stay tuned for more on this subject. That’s your daily dose, we’ll chat again tomorrow.

Your Baby

Babies Shouldn’t Be Given OTC Cold Medicines

2:00

When a baby is sick with a cold, the first reaction for many parents is to want to give their infant something to make him or her feel better. It’s a natural response; no parent likes to see their little one feeling bad. But turning to the medicine cabinet or making a trip to the pharmacy isn’t going to help your baby get better any quicker and could be dangerous says the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Over-the-counter (OTC) cold and cough medicine should not be given to children younger than 2 because they could cause serious and potentially deadly side effects, the agency warned.

Children often get more colds than adults, and parents might want to give them pain relievers, decongestants and other medicines, but that would be a mistake. The FDA says the best medicine is simple rest and care.

"A cold is self-limited, and patients will get better on their own in a week or two without any need for medications. For older children, some OTC medicines can help relieve the symptoms -- but won't change the natural course of the cold or make it go away faster," Dr. Amy Taylor, a medical officer in FDA's Division of Pediatric and Maternal Health, said in the news release.

A virus is what typically brings on a cold, but people often ask their physician or pediatrician (for their children) for antibiotics to treat them. Antibiotics are only useful for treating bacterial infections.

Colds are usually accompanied by coughing which can actually be useful to the body.

"Coughs help the body clear the mucus out of the airway and protect the lungs; so you don't want to suppress all coughs," Taylor said.

"Coughs help the body clear the mucus out of the airway and protect the lungs; so you don't want to suppress all coughs," she said.

Fever helps the body fight off an infection and does not always need to be treated. But if your child is uncomfortable because of fever or other symptoms of a cold, there are alternatives to cough and cold medicine to help them feel more comfortable. Taylor says they include the following actions:

·      Using a clean cool-mist vaporizer or humidifier in a small area near the child’s bed may help moisten the air and decrease the drying of the nasal passages and throat.

·      For infants with a stuffy nose, use saline or salt water drops/spray to moisten the nasal passages and loosen the mucus. Then clean the nose with a bulb syringe.

Non-drug treatments to ease coughs in children with colds include giving them plenty of fluids, especially warm drinks to soothe the throat.

While most children with colds do not need to see a doctor, Taylor said parents should call the doctor if they see any of these symptoms:

·      A fever in an infant aged 2 months or younger, or a fever of 102 Fahrenheit or higher at any age.

·       Signs of breathing problems, including nostrils widening with each breath, wheezing, fast breathing or the ribs showing with each breath.

·      Blue lips, ear pain, not eating or drinking, signs of dehydration.

·      Excessive crankiness or sleepiness, a cough that lasts for more than three weeks, or worsening condition.

·      A persistent cough may signal a more serious condition such as bronchitis or asthma.

"You have to know your child," Taylor said. "With small infants, fever is a major concern, and you need medical advice. If you are worried about your child's symptoms, at any age, call your pediatrician for advice."

The FDA voluntarily removed cough and cold products for children under two years old from the market because of on-going safety concerns discussed in 2007.  These safety concerns revealed that there were many reports of harm, and even death, to children who used these products.  These reports of harm occurred when the child received too medication such as in cases as accidental ingestion, unintentional overdose, or after a medication dosing error.  In those reports of harm that lead to a child’s death, most of those children were under two years of age.  

Since infant formulations of cough and cold products were voluntarily removed from the market years ago, parents who currently give these products to their infants (less than 2 years of age) may be using cough and cold products designed for older children and modifying the doses, for instance by giving half the recommended amount to the infant than what is recommended for an older child.  This can be especially dangerous as dosing adjustments cannot safely be made this way and could add to the existing risk of giving these products to young children.

Colds can be tough on children and adults and this is certainly the time of year when we all are more susceptible to getting one. Fluids and plenty of rest, plus sanitizing the area around the sick person and not sharing objects like silverware and drinking cups is the best treatment for colds. And of course the most important cold remedy for baby is mommy and daddy’s love and tender touch. 

Source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/respiratory-and-allergy-information-2/common-cold-news-142/steer-clear-of-cold-meds-for-babies-fda-advises-693878.html

http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/SpecialFeatures/ucm263948.htm

Your Baby

Gut Bacteria Linked to Kid’s Asthma

2:00

Four types of gut bacteria may reduce a child’s risk of developing asthma according to a recent Canadian study.

Most Infants - but not all - typically receive these bacteria from their environment or mothers after birth. Sometimes babies are given antibiotics that not only kill bad bacteria, but eliminating the helpful gut bacteria as well.

"We now have particular markers that seem to predict asthma later in life," lead researcher Brett Finlay, a professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, said during a news conference Tuesday.

"These findings indicate that bacteria that live in and on us may have a role in asthma," he said. This seems to happen by 3 months of age in ways that still aren't clear.

Previous studies have shown that certain environmental bacteria, such as living on a farm or having pets, appear to decrease the chances of children developing asthma.

Another interesting clue to asthma is what populations seem to have the most cases. Instances of asthma have increased in western countries where hygiene standards are higher. "Ironically, it has not increased in developing countries," Finlay said.

Organizations that specifically track asthma cases around the world say that as developing countries move from poverty into low-to-middle income, cases of childhood asthma begin to increase.

The "hygiene hypothesis," says environments that are too clean may actually impede development of the immune system.

For the study, Finlay and colleagues looked for four types of bacteria in stool samples of 319 infants at 3 months of age. The bacteria are called FLVR (Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, Veillonella and Rothia).

The researchers found that 22 children with low levels of these bacteria at age 3 months also had low levels at age 1 year.

These 22 children are at the highest risk of developing asthma, and eight have been diagnosed with the respiratory disease so far, the researchers said.

Study co-author Dr. Stuart Turvey, professor of pediatric immunology at the University of British Columbia, said at the news conference that it's "not surprising how important early life is."

In the first 100 days of life, gut makeup influences the immune response that causes or protects kids from asthma, he said.

Turvey also noted that testing infants for these bacteria might help identify children who will be at high risk for asthma. Babies without FLVR bacteria could be followed and treated earlier for better outcomes he said.

Whether giving kids probiotics -- good bacteria -- might reduce asthma risk isn't known, the researchers said. Turvey said the probiotics available in over-the-counter forms do not include the four bacteria identified in this study.

"Studies like ours are identifying specific bacteria combinations that seem to be missing in the children at the highest risk of asthma," he said. "The long-term goal is to see if we could offer these bacteria back, not the general nonspecific probiotics."

Finlay said the findings need to be replicated in larger groups and in different populations. He said the researchers also want to know if all four bacteria are protective, or just one or two.

As with most studies, the results did not prove a cause and effect only a connection, in this case between gut bacteria and asthma risk in children.

The report was published online in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Source: Steven Reinberg, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/news/20150930/gut-bacteria-tied-to-asthma-risk-in-kids

 

 

Daily Dose

Why Babies Get "Goop" In Their Eyes

1:15 to read

If you have recently had a baby you may already know about “clogged tear ducts”. This is also named nasal lacrimal duct obstruction and is fairly common in newborn infants in the first weeks to months of life.

A baby’ s tear duct, the tiny little hole in the inner corner of the eye, is very small and narrow and may often get obstructed. If that is the case the tears that an infant makes gets backed up and may form a thickened “goopy” discharge in the eye. At times when this occurs the baby’s eye will seem to be “glued” shut as the goop gets in the eyelashes and almost seems to cement those little eyes shut. Occasionally the eye will look a little puffy due to the debris in the eye. The best thing to do for this problem is to use a warm compress or cotton ball dampened with warm water to wipe the eyelashes and remove the discharge from the eye.

Once the “goop” is removed and your baby opens their eye, look at the whites (conjuctiva) of the eye. The conjunctiva should not appear to be red or inflamed. The goop will re-accumulate over time, but the eye itself should continue to look clear. Babies with clogged tear ducts do not appear to be ill and continue to eat well. The only problem should be the goopy eye. In order to help open the clogged duct you can try to massage the inner lower corner of the baby’s eye (beneath the tear duct itself), several times a day. Gently apply pressure to the area and do this several times a day. The eye “goop” always seems to be worse after the baby has been sleeping. It is also not uncommon for one eye to clear up only to have the other eye develop “goop”.  Most of these obstructions resolve on its own by four to six months of age. If the tear duct continues to be obstructed, talk to your pediatrician about a possible referral to the pediatric ophthalmologist.

That’s your daily dose, we’ll chat again tomorrow.

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