Twitter Facebook RSS Feed Print
Your Baby

Special Baby Formulas Don’t Prevent Asthma, Allergies

2:00

Parents that have a baby at risk or allergies, asthma or type-1 Diabetes sometimes turn to hydrolyzed milk formulas in hopes of lowering their infant’s risk of developing these problems.

A new review of the data on hydrolyzed formulas finds that there is no evidence that they actually protect children from these types of autoimmune disorders.

"We found no consistent evidence to support a protective role for partially or extensively hydrolyzed formula," concluded a team led by Robert Boyle of Imperial College London in England.

"Our findings conflict with current international guidelines, in which hydrolyzed formula is widely recommended for young formula-fed infants with a family history of allergic disease," the study authors added.

In the study, Boyle's team looked at data from 37 studies that together included more than 19,000 participants and were conducted between 1946 and 2015.

The investigators found that infants who received hydrolyzed cow's milk formula did not have a lower risk of asthma, allergies (such as eczema, hay fever, food allergies) or type 1 diabetes compared to those who received human breast milk or a standard cow's milk formula.

The researchers also found no evidence to support an FDA-approved claim that a partially hydrolyzed formula could reduce the risk of the skin disorder eczema, or another conclusion that hydrolyzed formula could prevent an allergy to cow's milk.

Other experts in the United States said that the finding casts doubt on the usefulness of these kinds of specialized products.

"Allergies and autoimmune diseases [such as asthma, and type 1 diabetes] are on the rise and it would be nice if we did have a clear route to preventing them," said Dr. Ron Marino, associate chair of pediatrics at Winthrop-University Hospital in Mineola, N.Y.

"Unfortunately, despite U.S. Food and Drug Administration support [for hydrolyzed formula], the data are not compelling," he said.

Dr. Punita Ponda is assistant chief of allergy and immunology at Northwell Health in Great Neck, N.Y. She stressed that when it comes to infant feeding, breast milk is by far the healthiest option.

However, "current mainstream guidelines for infant formula do recommend that parents consider using hypoallergenic formula if a close family member -- like an older brother or sister -- has a food allergy," she said. That was based on prior studies supporting some kind of protective effect, Ponda said.

Protein hydrolysate formulas were first introduced in the 1940s for babies who could not tolerate the milk protein in cow’s milk.

Protein hydrolyzed formulas are formulas composed of proteins that are partially broken down or “hydrolyzed.” They are also called hydrolysates.

There are two broad categories of protein hydrolysates:

•       Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHF)

•       Extensively hydrolyzed formulas (eHF)

Both partially and extensively hydrolyzed protein formulas are based on casein or whey, which are proteins found in milk.  

Hydrolyzed formulas have had the protein chains broken down into shorter and more easy-to -digest chains. The more extensively hydrolyzed the formula, the fewer potentially allergenic compounds remain.

Hydrolyzed formulas are also more expensive than regular cow’s milk formulas and often harder to find.

The researchers review was published March 08, 2016 in the BMJ.

Story sources: Robert Preidt, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/news/20160308/special-infant-formulas-dont-shield-against-asthma-allergies-study

Victoria Groce, http://foodallergies.about.com/od/adultfoodallergies/p/hypoallergenic.htm

 

Your Toddler

Thumb Sucking and Nail Biting Linked to Fewer Allergies

1:30

An interesting new study out of New Zealand suggests that young children who suck their thumbs or bite their nails may be at a lower risk for developing allergies.

The study included data from 1000 children born in New Zealand in 1972 or 1973, and spanned three decades.

While the results of the study suggests these habits may lower children’s risks of developing allergies, researchers noted that they are not recommending that kids take up these habits, only that the habits may play a role protecting them against allergies into adulthood.

 "Many parents discourage these habits, and we do not have enough evidence to [advise they] change this," said Dr. Robert Hancox, an associate professor of respiratory epidemiology at the University of Otago in New Zealand. "We certainly don't recommend encouraging nail-biting or thumb-sucking, but perhaps if a child has one of these habits and [it] is difficult [for them] to stop, there is some consolation in the knowledge that it might reduce their risk of allergies.”

The researchers asked the parents of the children participating in the study about their kids’ thumb-sucking habits and nail-biting habits four times: when the kids were 5, 7, 9 and 11 years old. Researchers also tested the children for allergies using a skin-prick test when they were 13, and then followed up with the kids again when they were 32.

It turned out that 38 percent of the children who had sucked their thumbs or bit their nails had at least one allergy, whereas among kids who did not have these habits, 49 percent had at least one allergy.

Moreover, the link between these childhood habits and a lower risk of allergies was still present among the study participants when they were 32 years old. The link persisted even when the researchers took into account potentially confounding factors that may also affect a person's risk of allergies, such as whether their parents had allergies, whether they owned pets, whether they were breast-fed as infants and whether their parents smoked.

By the time the children were 13 years old, researchers found that the ones who both sucked their thumbs and bit their nails were even less likely to have allergies compared with children who had just one of the two habits. However, by the time they were 32, this association was no longer found.

The study was published in the July edition of the journal Pediatrics.

The results of this study are inline with another study published in 2013, which found that children whose mothers sucked their kids’ pacifiers clean had a lower risk of developing allergies.

"Although the mechanism and age of exposure [to pathogens] are different, both studies suggest that the immune response and risk of allergies may be influenced by exposure to oral bacteria or other microbes," the researchers wrote in the new study.

The new findings also lend support the so-called hygiene hypothesis, which holds that environments that have too little dirt and germs may make children more susceptible to certain conditions, including allergies. It seems that "exposure to microbial organisms influences our immune system and makes us less likely to develop allergies," Hancox told Live Science.

Kids that suck their thumbs or bite their nails, receive mixed reactions from adults. Most adults will encourage kids to stop biting their nails, while it’s probably 50/50 on the thumb sucking. Either way, it appears that oral bacteria may play a role in lowering the risks of developing allergies in kids.

Story source: Agata Blaszczak-Boxe, http://www.livescience.com/55340-children-thumb-sucking-nail-biting-allergy-risk.html

 

Your Baby

“Furry Pets” May Help Kids Avoid Some Allergies

2:00

You might think that having pets would be a nightmare if you have small children with a family history of allergies. A new study says that furry pets may actually help protect children against some allergies.

The infants’ mothers had a history of allergy, so the babies were at increased risk too, and it was once thought that pets might be a trigger for allergies in such children, the authors point out in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

“Earlier it was thought that exposure to pets early in childhood was a risk factor for developing allergic disease,” said Dr. Merja Nermes of the University of Turku in Finland, who coauthored the research letter. “Later epidemiologic studies have given contradictory results and even suggested that early exposure to pets may be protective against allergies, though the mechanisms of this protective effect have remained elusive.”

Adding pet microbes to the infant intestinal biome may strengthen the immune system, she told Reuters Health by email.

The study team collected fecal samples from diapers when the babies were one month of age and these were tested for the DNA of two types of Bifidobacteria that are found specifically in animal guts: B. thermophilum and B. pseudolongum.

One third of infants from the pet-exposed group had animal-specific bifidobacteria in their fecal samples, compared to 14 percent of the comparison group. It’s not clear where the infants without furry pets at home acquired their gut bacteria, the authors write.

When the babies were six months old they had skin prick tests to assess allergies to cow’s milk, egg white, flours, cod, soybeans, birch, grasses, cat, dog, potato, banana and other allergens.

At six months of age, 19 infants had reactions to at least one of the allergens tested. None of these infants had B. thermophilum bacteria in their fecal samples.

Other studies have pointed out the connection between kids exposed to farm animals and household pets and building a better immune system.

“When infants and furry pets live in a close contact in the same household, transfer of microbiota between pets and infants occurs,” Nermes said. “For example, when a dog licks the infant´s face or hand, the pet-derived microbiota can end up via the mouth into the infant´s intestine.”

Human-specific Bifidobacteria have beneficial health effects, and animal-specific strains may also be beneficial, she said. It is still unclear, however, if exposure to these bacteria protects against allergies later in life, she said.

“Future research is needed to assess if these infants develop less atopic dermatitis, asthma or allergic rhinitis later,” she said.

Nermes also noted that she believes pediatricians should not discourage pregnant women or parents of infants from having pets in order to prevent allergies.

“If a family with a pregnant mother or an infant wants to have a pet, the family can be encouraged to have one, because the development of allergic disease cannot be prevented by avoiding pets,” she said.

Source: Kathryn Doyle, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/10/us-health-allergy-pet-microbes-idUSKCN0RA2CK20150910

 

 

Daily Dose

Spring Allergies

1:30 to read

I just came in from walking my dog and found myself sneezing and rubbing my nose….funny I didn’t think I had allergies!!  But, all of the pollen blowing around right now not only coats your car and yard, but is coating your nasal passages, eyes and being inhaled into your upper respiratory tract as well causing all sorts of issues with seasonal allergies.

This year is proving to be a big allergy season as most of the U.S. had a mild wet winter which is a perfect “storm” for spring allergies. Tree pollen is the biggest culprit right now, and depending where you live it may be oak, elm, mulberry, maple, pecan, aspen….. but all are producing pollen that are blowing in the spring wind.

At this time of the year many people think they have a cold rather than allergies, but there are several distinguishing features.  With a cold, which is due to a virus,  not only do you have a runny nose and cough, you often feel achey and may have a low grade fever and sore throat and the symptoms usually last for 7-10 days and then improve. With allergies you may have itchy or watery eyes, and a clear runny nose which may sometimes trigger a cough, especially in children who have underlying asthma. You may also find that your child has 2 bad days, then several good days rather than continuous symptoms like a cold. Even though seasonal allergies are often called “hayfever” there is no fever associated with allergies. Many a parent with a 2 year old comes into the office with their child complaining of a fever of 102, runny nose and cough, and they think their child may have allergies and can go to school…..not so.

Seasonal allergies in children typically present between the ages of 2  - 6 years and occur in up to 10 - 15% of children. Parents may start to notice that their child always has red rimmed eyes and runny nose in March, April as tree pollens emerge, or are worse in June as grass pollen becomes an issue…. all pointing towards allergies. 

Fortunately, many of the best products to help prevent and control seasonal allergies are available over the counter.  Anti-histamines are the mainstay for allergies for those who have occasional problems. There are both older sedating anti-histamines like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and newer non-sedating medications such as loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine  (Zyrtec), fexofenadine (Allegra).  All come in both liquid and pill form and some have orally disintegrating tablets which are wonderful for a young child who cannot yet swallow a pill but balks at liquid medications.  (Good time to also discuss how to swallow a pill!).  

For children who have known seasonal allergies or ongoing issues I encourage daily steroid nasal spray use - which is a preventative measure to help block the allergic cascade from occurring. You can now buy fluticasone ( Flonase), Mometasone (Nasonex), budesonide (Rhinocort) and triamcinolone (Nascort) all over the counter. Even a young child over the age of 4 years  (they are often used in even younger children when prescribed by your pediatrician) may use a steroid nasal spray daily during allergy seaon.   Using these nose sprays for extended periods of time has been associated with a slight decrease in growth velocity while being used, so discuss this with your pediatrician. 

I typically also recommend a nasal saline solution like Little Remedies to irrigate the nose before using the steroid spray. Not only does this help to wash out any pollen that has adhered inside the nostril, it clears the airway so that the steroid nasal spray may be more effective. Teaching your child to blow their nose after irrigating it is a huge milestone as well, and helps prevent ear infections and sinus infections….keep practicing blowing.

Playing outside at this time of year is always encouraged, but if your child seems to be developing allergies make sure to bathe them and wash their hair (and eyelashes)  when they come in at the end of the day. Irrigate their nose, use a daily OTC steroid nasal spray, add  OTC antihistamines and see how they do. If they have continued problems time for a visit to your pediatrician to look at other options.

Tags: 
Play
934 views in 8 months
Spring Allergies

Control Spring Allergies

Daily Dose

Allergy Nasal Sprays

1:30 to read

Since we are in the throes of allergy season (even though there was a recent late snow event in the midwest and northeast) I thought I would provide some additional information on steroid nasal sprays.  In fact, the climate changes that we are seeing are predicted to increase the length of pollinating seasons and therefore increase the amount of pollen produced, which will only make those with allergies (and children with developing allergies) even more miserable with symptoms of runny nose, sneezing, throat clearing and itchy eyes.  

Although I recently discussed the use of non sedating and sedating anti-histamines for intermittent allergy symptoms, the use of intranasal steroids have been found to be far more effective in controlling allergy symptoms.  The first thing to remember is that unlike an antihistamine, intranasal steroids require several days of consistent use before you will see any real change in allergy symptoms (I must repeat that line 10 times a day, especially to my teenage patients who want instant gratification!).  For anyone who knows the season for their allergies (depending on the pollen one is sensitive to), I recommend starting the intranasal steroid spray 1-2 weeks before their symptoms typically begin. (Which means if you are allergic to tree pollens - you should have already started by now). Using the nasal spray daily and continuing throughout the allergy season will provide the best results.  Watching the pollen counts in your area will be important to time the use of intranasal steroids.

Although some children seem to be more sensitive about using a intranasal steroid spray, it is well tolerated by most with few side effects.  Prescription intranasal steroid sprays have been approved for use in children as young as 2 years and the over the counter sprays for children 4 years and older.  The most commonly reported side effects are nasal irritation, burning and bloody noses.  I always try to show my patients how to use the spray properly and to “aim” the spray towards the outer aspect of the inside of the nostril rather than towards the septum (middle) which may help reduce irritation and bloody noses. By spraying towards the outer aspect you also maximize the amount of area that is covered by the spray.  Everyone seems to have their “favorite” intranasal steroid as some are an aqueous spray and others are an aerosolized puff….but in many cases the product choice may be based on the age of the patient, prescription vs OTC, insurance coverage and cost.  Although there are many to choose from there have been no head to head studies with these medications and their efficacy is generally thought to be comparable….but discuss your choices with your own pediatrician.

Lastly, there was a study done in 2014 published in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, which measured growth rates in children between 5 and 8 years of age who were treated with an intranasal steroid (specifically fluticasone furcate - Veramyst ) as compared to a placebo. The study did show a significant improvement in nasal allergy symptom scores, but there was a 0.27 cm (0.65 inch ) reduction in growth rate over the course of the year as compared to placebo.  Due to this study, I use the lowest effective dose for the shortest amount of time in younger patients, and explain the reasoning to their parents.  Again, you can read the study and discuss this with your pediatrician before beginning intranasal steroids.   

Just make sure you use the intranasal spray consistently during the height of allergy season…I tell my own family, it doesn’t work as well if it sits on the counter for a few days between use!

 

Your Child

The Eczema, Allergies and Asthma March

1:45

Eczema refers to a number of different skin conditions in which the skin becomes red and irritated and sometimes has small, fluid filled bumps that ooze.

The most common cause of eczema is atopic dermatitis (sometimes called infantile eczema), which affects older kids as well as infants.

Children with eczema may eventually get food allergies, hay fever, or asthma. But you can take steps to soothe the itch and possibly cut the risk of allergies.

While most experts don't think eczema is purely allergic, it's clearly connected to allergic conditions like food allergies, hay fever, and asthma.

·      Up to 80% of kids with eczema get hay fever or asthma later in childhood.

·       35% of adults with asthma or nasal allergies had eczema as kids.

·      If a mom has allergies, there's almost a 1 in 3 chance that her baby will have eczema.

·      37% of kids with moderate to severe eczema also have food allergies.

For some kids, eczema and allergies develop in a specific order, as they get older. It starts with eczema, then food allergies, then asthma, and then hay fever. It's called the allergic march.

But just because your child has eczema doesn't mean they'll get these other conditions. It just means there's a higher risk.

There are several things that can increase a child’s risk of being part of the allergic march.  Kids who get eczema at a young age may be more likely to have allergies or asthma later. Kids with worse eczema symptoms may be more likely to get allergies or asthma.

You can do some things that might lower your child's chances of worsening eczema, asthma, or allergies. The evidence isn't clear, so talk to your doctor or your child's pediatrician. Depending on the situation, the doctor might recommend:

Breastfeeding your baby: It might lower the risk of eczema, later allergies, or asthma.

Diet changes: If your baby has a high risk of allergic problems, some doctors recommend changes in diet. Breastfeeding for at least 4 months can help protect your child. “Hydrolyzed” formula might help protect formula-fed babies.

Other ways to keep your child's eczema under control include:

Get allergy testing. If you can pin the problem on a specific allergen, you can figure out ways to avoid it.

Use a moisturizer. Go for thick creams and ointments that stop the skin from drying out.

Keep fingernails short. Your child will do less damage to the skin from scratching.

Avoid irritants. Always use unscented soap and laundry detergent. Stay away from cigarette smoke.

Watch for problems. If your child's eczema seems to be getting worse -- or if they get allergy symptoms, like congestion or a runny nose -- see a doctor. The sooner you get treatment, the sooner your child will feel better.

In many cases, eczema goes into remission and symptoms may disappear altogether for months or even years.

For many kids, it begins to improve by the age of 5 or 6; others may have flare-ups throughout adolescence and early adulthood.

In some kids, the condition may improve but then restart as they enter puberty, when hormones, stress, and irritating skin products or cosmetics are introduced. Some people will have some degree of dermatitis into adulthood, with areas of itching and a dry, scaly appearance.

Eczema is not contagious, so there's no need to keep a baby or child who has it away from siblings, other kids, or anyone else.

Story sources; http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/eczema/child-eczema-14/allergies?ecd=wnl_prg_050116&ctr=wnl-prg-050116_nsl-promo-4_title&mb=HJinmVxrQQBBWXaWABbkR%40HnVev1imbCiW2HnNaB9FE%3d

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/eczema-atopic-dermatitis.html#

 

 

 

Daily Dose

Peanut Allergies

1:30 to read

Did you see the New England Journal of Medicine article which was recently published regarding peanut allergy? Interestingly, the study out of the UK seemed to confirm what some of us “old school pediatricians” had thought... the previous recommendation that babies and toddlers avoid peanut products in the first year of life may actually lead to more peanut allergies in children who are already at risk for developing food allergies.

In the late 1990’s allergists were concerned about the rise in peanut allergies and recommendations were made to delay introduction of peanuts (as well as some other foods).  At the time it did seem strange seeing that children born prior to this were raised on peanut butter...but like many things, nothing stays the same, right?

But over the years, the increase in peanut allergies continued, despite the fact that mothers were not eating peanut products during their pregnancy or while breast feeding and parents were delaying the introduction of peanut products until their child was 2 years of age. When the data from this period was analyzed, instead of seeing a decrease in children with peanut allergies... the incidence of peanut allergies continued to increase.

So, in 2008 the AAP changed their recommendations and again encouraged parents to let their children eat peanut products in the first year of life just NO peanuts due to the choking hazard.  But many parents continued to be wary...in fact some, who had no history suggesting allergies ( eczema, wheezing, family history of food allergies), would actually bring peanut butter to my office for a trial. One mother came for a quick “house call” one day and I handed her child (who was 20 months at the time) a peanut butter cracker I was eating and her mother “freaked out”.  Fortunately, the child loved the cracker and no issues with peanut butter either. She was thrilled when she left with another cracker in hand 

This article was just the first of many studies being undertaken to “help solve the puzzle of food allergies”. There is so much about this topic on the horizon but in the meantime, if your child does not have a  history to suggest allergies I would try introducing peanut butter, almond butter, as well as eggs and dairy to your child. If you have a family history of food allergies, or concerns talk to your doctor about beginning these foods earlier than later even if that is in a controlled situation in the pediatrician’s or allergist’s office.

I can’t wait to give baby granddaughter some of these foods as well (she just started to get some veggies) and peanut butter is not far behind.  I did “sneak” her a morsel of pancake the other morning...you should have seen that smile.

Your Baby

Kid’s Exposure to Dogs May Help Prevent Asthma

1:30

It may sound like the opposite would be true, but a new study suggests that when children are exposed to dogs and other animals early on, they’re less likely to have asthma later in life.

Researchers looked at more than one million Swedish children. They found that those who grew up with dogs in the home were nearly 15 percent less likely to develop asthma than those not exposed to dogs.

This ties in with an earlier study that showed children who grow up on farms also have lower rates of asthma.

The study was led by author Tove Fall, assistant professor of epidemiology at Uppsala University in Sweden. In a university news release, she noted that "earlier studies have shown that growing up on a farm reduces a child's risk of asthma to about half. We wanted to see if this relationship also was true for children growing up with dogs in their homes."

Fall said, "Our results confirmed the farming effect and we also saw that children who grew up with dogs had about 15 percent less asthma than children without dogs. Because we had access to such a large and detailed data set, we could account for confounding factors such as asthma in parents, area of residence and socioeconomic status."

Study senior author Catarina Almqvist Malmros, a professor of clinical epidemiology at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, stressed that the finding is only relates to children who have not yet developed asthma or allergies.

"We know that children with established allergy to cats or dogs should avoid them," she said in the news release.

What about other pets, such as cats, birds or hamsters?  The jury is still out on that one.

"In this study, early exposure to dogs and farm animals reduced asthma risk, and this may or may not include other types of pets that children keep," said Dr. Len Horovitz, a pulmonary specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. "The takeaway is that early exposure may reduce the incidence of a later pathological process," he said.

Experts have begin to warn parents that children raised in too sterile an environment are more prone to developing allergies and reactions to common bacteria and pet dander.  A little dirt and dander may be just what the doctor orders now to help prevent allergies and asthma later.

The findings were recently published online in the journal JAMA Pediatrics.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/respiratory-and-allergy-information-2/asthma-news-47/dogs-in-the-home-may-lower-kids-odds-for-asthma-study-finds-704764.html

Pages

Please fill in your e-mail address to be included in our newsletter.
You may opt out at any time.

 

DR SUE'S DAILY DOSE

A few life lessons & fun with Elf on the Shelf!

Please fill in your e-mail address to be included in our newsletter.
You may opt out at any time.

 

Please fill in your e-mail address to be included in our newsletter.
You may opt out at any time.