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Your Toddler

Does Parents’ Obesity Impact Toddlers’ Developmental Skills?

2:00

Children, whose parents are obese, may show signs of developmental delays by the time they are 3 years old, according to a new study.

The specific developmental problems seem to differ depending on whether the mother, father or both parents are obese, according to researchers from the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

"Specifically, mothers' obesity was associated with a delay in achieving fine-motor skills, and fathers' obesity in achieving personal and social skills -- that includes skills for interacting with others," said lead researcher Edwina Yeung. She's an investigator in the institute's division of intramural population health research.

"When both parents were obese, it meant longer time to develop problem-solving skills," she added.

Not everyone agrees with the researchers’ conclusion. At least one pediatric neurologist suggests that the results don’t necessarily prove a direct cause and effect.

And Yeung acknowledges the same. "We used observational data, which doesn't allow us to prove cause and effect, per se," she explained.

What the researchers found was interesting though. Compared with children of normal-weight mothers, children of obese mothers were 67 percent more likely to fail a test of fine-motor skills (using their hands and fingers) by age 3.

In addition, children of obese fathers were about 71 percent more likely to fail tests of personal and social skills, which may indicate how well they relate to and interact with others, by age 3, the researchers said.

Children whose mother and father were both obese were nearly three times more likely to fail tests of problem-solving ability by age 3, according to the researchers’ findings.

Most research into understanding child health and development has focused on mothers and their pregnancies. "Our findings suggest that factors from fathers may also play a role and deserve attention," Yeung said.

One child health expert doesn't think obese parents should be overly concerned by this study.

"Children of obese parents are not doomed to have developmental problems," said Dr. Ian Miller. He is a pediatric neurologist and director of Neuroinformatics at Nicklaus Children's Hospital in Miami.

There’s a long list of other conditions that can also impact the brain such as lead-poisoning, sickle cell disease, iron-deficiency anemia, autism, epilepsy or cerebral palsy—any of which can cause developmental problems, Miller said. He isn't ready, however, to add obesity to that list.

But, obesity may increase the risks of these health problems, Miller says. The probability for developmental problems is low among all children, including those of obese parents. "It's not a 'sky is falling' type of scenario," he said.

For the study, Yeung and her colleagues collected data on more than 5,000 women and their children who were part of the Upstate KIDS study, which sought to determine if fertility treatments could affect child development from birth through age 3.

The women were enrolled in the study about four months after giving birth in New York state, excluding New York City, between 2008 and 2010.

About one in five pregnant women in the United States is overweight or obese, Yeung said.

To check the children's development, parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire after doing a series of activities with their children, Yeung said.

The test doesn't diagnose specific problems, but is a screen for potential problems, so that children can be referred for further testing, she explained.

The children were tested at 4 months and six more times through age 3 years. Mothers also gave information on their health and weight, both before and after pregnancy, and the weight of their partners, Yeung said.

More studies are needed to further examine if there is a link between obese parents and their offspring’s developmental skills, Yeung said.

The report was published online Jan. 2 in the journal Pediatrics.

Story Source: Steven Reinberg, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20170103/can-parents-weight-hinder-toddlers-development#1

Your Toddler

Uncut Grapes Can Choke Young Children

1:30

While good nutrition involves plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, there’s one fruit that should not be given to children 5 and under; grapes.

Uncut grapes are dangerous for young children because their size and smooth texture can cause choking and even death.

There have already been three choking cases in Scotland, out of which two turned out to be fatal, involving boys who were 5 or younger.

A report published in the journal Archives of Disease in Childhood notes that food is responsible for more than half of the choking incidents, which end in deaths when it comes to children under the age of 5.

"There is general awareness of the need to supervise young children when they are eating ... but knowledge of the dangers posed by grapes and other similar foods is not widespread," noted Dr. Jamie Cooper, co-author of the report, from the emergency department at Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital.

According to the same report, there is no awareness concerning the specific risks that soft fruits raise, and the relatively small numbers of cases per hospital, which occur every year, don't fully reflect the extent to which this issue can affect young children.

Kids that have choked on grapes don’t often make the news, but according to research conducted in the United States and Canada, grapes occupy third place when it comes to deaths caused by food-related incidents, after hotdogs and sweets.

There are two reasons why grapes are so dangerous, especially in very young children: first, because the airways of the children are small and their swallow reflex is not fully developed, and second due to the smooth texture of the fruit.

Other foods with similar texture can pose a choking hazard, such as tomatoes.  Health experts suggest that grapes and tomatoes be cut in half twice. Anytime a child (or an adult for that matter) is eating uncut grapes or small tomatoes they should pay attention to their eating and not mechanically pop them into their mouths – like when watching TV or playing video games.

Grapes and tomatoes are good sources of fiber and healthy nutrients, just make sure that your little one has his or hers’ cut up so they are not easily choked when eating them.

Story source: Livia Rusu, http://www.techtimes.com/articles/189851/20161224/grapes-as-a-choking-hazard-doctors-say-lack-of-awareness-puts-young-children-at-risk.htm

 

 

Your Toddler

Ikea Recalls 29 Million Chests and Dressers After More Children Die

2:00

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), in cooperation with IKEA North America, of Conshohocken, Pa., is announcing the recall of all chests and dressers that do not comply with the performance requirements of the U.S. voluntary industry standard (ASTM F2057-14).  The recalled children’s chests and dressers are taller than 23.5 inches and adult chests and dressers are taller than 29.5 inches.  The 29 million units of recalled chests and dressers include: MALM 3-drawer, 4-drawer, 5-drawer and three 6-drawer models and other children’s and adult chests and dressers.  The recalled chests and dressers are unstable if they are not properly anchored to the wall, posing a serious tip-over and entrapment hazard that can result in death or serious injuries to children.

 On July 22, 2015, CPSC and IKEA announced a repair program for the chests and dressers that included a free wall-anchoring repair kit for the MALM chests and dressers and other IKEA chests and dressers. Two tragic fatalities involving MALM chests and dressers occurred prior to the announcement of the repair program:

·      In February 2014, a 2-year-old boy from West Chester, Pa. died after a 6-drawer MALM chest tipped over and fatally pinned him against his bed.

·      In June 2014, a 23-month-old boy from Snohomish, Wash. died after he became trapped beneath a 3-drawer MALM chest that tipped over. 

Subsequent to the July 2015 announcement, CPSC and IKEA learned of additional tip-over incidents, including a February 2016 incident in which a 22-month-old boy from Apple Valley, Minn. died when a MALM 6-drawer chest fell on top of him. 

 None of the chests or dressers in the above-listed incidents had been anchored to the wall.  In addition to the three deaths, IKEA received reports of 41 tip-over incidents involving the MALM chests and dressers, resulting in 17 injuries to children between the ages of 19 months and 10 years old.

 The MALM chests and dressers are constructed of particleboard or fiberboard and are white, birch (veneer), medium brown, black-brown, white stained oak (veneer), oak (veneer), pink, turquoise, grey, grey-turquoise, lilac, green, brown stained ash (veneer), and black.  A 5-digit supplier number, 4-digit date stamp, IKEA logo, country of origin and “MALM” are printed on the underside of the top panel or inside the side panel. 

 Since 1996, IKEA chests and dressers have been labeled to identify IKEA, the model name and the manufacturing date.

 The recalled MALM chests were sold from 2002 through June 2016 for between $70 and $200. 

 Recalled MALM Chest and Drawers:

·      MALM 3 – Sold 10/2002 to 6/2016

·      MALM 4 – Sold 6/2002 to 6/2016

·      MALM 5 -  Sold 10/2002 to 4/2006

·      MALM 6-  Sold 6/2002 to 6/2016

·      MALM 6 LONG – Sold 11/2002 to 6/2016

·      MALM 6 – Sold 4/2006 to 6/2016

IKEA also received 41 reports of tip-overs involving chests and dressers other than MALMs, resulting in the deaths of three children and 19 injuries to children:

·      In July 1989, a 20-month-old girl from Mt. Vernon, Va. died after  an unanchored GUTE 4-drawer chest tipped over and pinned her against the footboard of a youth bed.

·      In March 2002, a 2½-year-old boy from Cranford, N.J. died after an unanchored RAKKE 5-drawer chest tipped over and fatally pinned him to the floor.

·      In October 2007, a 3-year-old girl from Chula Vista, Calif. died after a KURS 3-drawer chest tipped over and fatally pinned her to the floor.  It is unknown as to whether the dresser was anchored or not.

Other recalled Chest and Drawers:

Most of the non-MALM chests and dressers included in this recall are listed on the IKEA website at www.IKEA-USA.com/recallchestsanddressers.

 Since 1996, IKEA chests and dressers have been labeled to identify IKEA, the model name and the manufacturing date.

 CPSC and IKEA are urging consumers to inspect their recalled IKEA chests and dressers to ensure that they are properly anchored to the wall.  Chests and dressers should be properly anchored to the wall whether or not they meet the ASTM standard.  Consumers should move any unanchored chests and dressers into storage or other areas where they cannot be accessed by children until the chests and dressers are properly anchored to the wall or removed from the home.

To receive a refund or free wall-anchoring kit for IKEA chests and dressers listed above, visit an IKEA retail store, go to www.IKEA-USA.com/recallchestsanddressers , or call 866-856-4532 anytime.

A child dies every two weeks and a child is injured every 24 minutes in the U.S. from furniture or TVs tipping over, according to CPSC data.

Remedy

Consumers should immediately stop using any recalled chest and dresser that is not properly anchored to the wall and place it into an area that children cannot access.  Contact IKEA for a choice between two options: refund or a free wall-anchoring repair kit.

Consumers are entitled to a full refund for chests and dressers manufactured between January 2002 and June 2016. Consumers with chests and dressers manufactured prior to January 2002 will be eligible for a partial store credit. 

Consumers can order a free wall-anchoring repair kit. Consumers can install the kit themselves or IKEA will provide a one-time, free in-home installation service, upon request. Consumers can reorder the kits throughout the life of their chest and dresser.

Story Source: http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Recalls/2016/IKEA-Recalls-29-Million-MALM-and-Other-Models-of-Chests-and-Dressers/

 

 

Your Toddler

Thumb Sucking and Nail Biting Linked to Fewer Allergies

1:30

An interesting new study out of New Zealand suggests that young children who suck their thumbs or bite their nails may be at a lower risk for developing allergies.

The study included data from 1000 children born in New Zealand in 1972 or 1973, and spanned three decades.

While the results of the study suggests these habits may lower children’s risks of developing allergies, researchers noted that they are not recommending that kids take up these habits, only that the habits may play a role protecting them against allergies into adulthood.

 "Many parents discourage these habits, and we do not have enough evidence to [advise they] change this," said Dr. Robert Hancox, an associate professor of respiratory epidemiology at the University of Otago in New Zealand. "We certainly don't recommend encouraging nail-biting or thumb-sucking, but perhaps if a child has one of these habits and [it] is difficult [for them] to stop, there is some consolation in the knowledge that it might reduce their risk of allergies.”

The researchers asked the parents of the children participating in the study about their kids’ thumb-sucking habits and nail-biting habits four times: when the kids were 5, 7, 9 and 11 years old. Researchers also tested the children for allergies using a skin-prick test when they were 13, and then followed up with the kids again when they were 32.

It turned out that 38 percent of the children who had sucked their thumbs or bit their nails had at least one allergy, whereas among kids who did not have these habits, 49 percent had at least one allergy.

Moreover, the link between these childhood habits and a lower risk of allergies was still present among the study participants when they were 32 years old. The link persisted even when the researchers took into account potentially confounding factors that may also affect a person's risk of allergies, such as whether their parents had allergies, whether they owned pets, whether they were breast-fed as infants and whether their parents smoked.

By the time the children were 13 years old, researchers found that the ones who both sucked their thumbs and bit their nails were even less likely to have allergies compared with children who had just one of the two habits. However, by the time they were 32, this association was no longer found.

The study was published in the July edition of the journal Pediatrics.

The results of this study are inline with another study published in 2013, which found that children whose mothers sucked their kids’ pacifiers clean had a lower risk of developing allergies.

"Although the mechanism and age of exposure [to pathogens] are different, both studies suggest that the immune response and risk of allergies may be influenced by exposure to oral bacteria or other microbes," the researchers wrote in the new study.

The new findings also lend support the so-called hygiene hypothesis, which holds that environments that have too little dirt and germs may make children more susceptible to certain conditions, including allergies. It seems that "exposure to microbial organisms influences our immune system and makes us less likely to develop allergies," Hancox told Live Science.

Kids that suck their thumbs or bite their nails, receive mixed reactions from adults. Most adults will encourage kids to stop biting their nails, while it’s probably 50/50 on the thumb sucking. Either way, it appears that oral bacteria may play a role in lowering the risks of developing allergies in kids.

Story source: Agata Blaszczak-Boxe, http://www.livescience.com/55340-children-thumb-sucking-nail-biting-allergy-risk.html

 

Your Toddler

Noisy Homes May Influence Toddler’s Vocabulary

1:00

Have you ever had a hard time understanding someone speak in a noisy restaurant? Imagine if you were trying to learn a new language. That’s just what toddlers are trying to do, learn a language. According to a new study, toddlers learn new words quicker when their environment has less background noise.

"Modern homes are filled with noisy distractions such as TV, radio and people talking that could affect how children learn words at early ages," said study leader Brianna McMillan.

"Our study suggests that adults should be aware of the amount of background speech in the environment when they're interacting with young children," said McMillan, a doctoral student in psychology at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

Researchers from the university assessed the ability of 106 children, aged 22 to 30 months, to learn new words. They found they were more successful when their surroundings were quiet than when there was background noise.

However, researchers noted that providing the children with additional language cues helped them overcome the detrimental effects of a noisy location.

"Hearing new words in fluent speech without a lot of background noise before trying to learn what objects the new words corresponded to, may help very young children master new vocabulary," said study co-author Jenny Saffran, a professor of psychology.

Sometimes, you simply can’t avoid a noisy environment- especially if there are other children around. Saffron says there is a way to overcome that.

“… When the environment is noisy, drawing young children's attention to the sounds of the new word may help them compensate," she added.

Story source: Robert Preidt, https://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/child-development-news-124/noisy-homes-slow-toddler-s-vocabulary-713013.html

 

 

Your Toddler

Nightmares & Night Terrors

Just about every parent has been awakened by their child at night because of a nightmare or night terror. They are very common occurrences in toddlers and pre-schoolers and something that most children outgrow by the time they head off to school. “Nightmares are just bad, scary dreams and they occur during REM sleep at the end of the night,” says pediatrician Dr. Sue Hubbard. She says with nightmares a child will wake up frightened and will usually have vivid memories of the dream. A child will be able to tell a parent about the dream and may have trouble going back to sleep because of it.

“Night terrors are totally different,” Dr. Hubbard says. “Night terrors scare the parents and they are not scaring the child, which is hard to understand.” Night terrors occur earlier in the night, normally during the first few hours of sleep. During a night terror, the child is not awake and when they do wake up they have no memory of it occurring. “ It can go on for a few minutes and then they go back to sleep or wake up and look around and go back to sleep. They have no fear, no anxiety, they just go right back to sleep. You on the other hand are trying to figure out what happened to your child. You can not comfort a child during a night terror, which is so terrifying as a parent, you can’t do anything,” she says. Nightmares and night terrors are sometimes triggered by sleep deprivation. Dr. Hubbard says one way to help prevent them from happening is to keep your child on a regular sleep schedule, going to bed and waking up at the same time every day.

Your Toddler

Anchor It!

1:45

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has launched “Anchor It”, a national public education campaign, to help make people aware of the dangers that free-standing furniture and TVs present, particularly to children.

The annual number of children injured or killed from furniture and TV tip-overs is astounding.

According to CPSC data, unstable and unsecured TVs and large pieces of furniture kill a child every two weeks, on average, in tip-over incidents that are easily preventable.  CPSC also reported that 38,000 Americans go to emergency rooms each year with injuries related to tip-overs of top-heavy furniture or televisions placed on furniture, instead of a TV stand.  Two-thirds of those injuries involved children younger than 5.  Additionally, between 2000 and 2013, 84 percent of the 430 deaths reported to CPSC involved children younger than 10.

A January 2015 CPSC report found that a television tipping over from an average size dresser falls with thousands of pounds of force. 

The impact of a falling TV is like being caught between two NFL linemen colliding at full-speed—10 times. 

“Every 24 minutes in the U.S. a child goes to the emergency room because of a tip-over incident involving furniture or a TV,” said CPSC Commissioners Marietta Robinson and Joseph Mohorovic. “We must take action now. CPSC’s new ‘Anchor It!’ campaign is a call to action for parents and caregivers to ‘get on top of it, before they do.’ If we can prevent one more death, it will be worth it.”

Cards and posters are being distributed parents and caregivers of toddlers at daycare centers and preschools. A list of safety steps parents and caregivers can take are printed on the handouts. They are:

·      Buy and install low-cost anchoring devices to prevent TVs, dressers, bookcases or other furniture from tipping.

·      Avoid leaving items, such as remote controls and toys, in places where kids might be tempted to climb up to reach for them.

·      Store heavier items on lower shelves or in lower drawers.

·      Place TVs on a sturdy, low base and push them as far back as possible, particularly if anchoring is not possible.

·      If purchasing a new TV, consider recycling older ones not currently used. If moving the older TV to another room, be sure it is anchored properly to the wall.

The “Anchor It” campaign’s website (www.Anchorit.gov) shows you how to anchor furniture and television sets properly, with easy to follow instructions. Keep your little one safe and Anchor It!

 

Your Toddler

Hitting & Biting

A normal part of develop with a young child is for them to experiment with hitting and biting. Child neuropsychologist Dr. Kristy Hagar says it’s normal and the hitting and biting comes out as a front-line reaction during the course of normal play. Dr. Hagar says it is important for parents to intervene every time they see their child hit or bite. “First thing is not to hit or bite back to teach them a ‘lesson’. It sends the wrong message.” Dr. Hagar recommends telling the child “no” in a firm voice and then do a consequence, like a time-out to reinforce the message.

“It’s a parents role, and teachers role too, to make sure the message is given back that it’s not an appropriate behavior,” Dr. Hagar says. But there is good news for parents worried that their child may turn in to a life-long hitter or biter. The behavior normally stops by age three, when a child’s language skills start to develop more.

Your Toddler

Almost 60,000 Kids Treated Yearly for Accidental Medicine Poisoning

2:00

According to a new report issued by Safe Kids Worldwide, a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing unintentional childhood injuries, almost 60,000 U.S. children are accidently poisoned by medicines each year.

That's the equivalent of four busloads of children -- or one every nine minutes -- arriving at emergency departments every day because of medicine-related poisoning, according to Safe Kids Worldwide.

And nearly every minute each day a poison control center receives a call about a child who got into medicines, the report notes.

"We want parents and caregivers to remember that the first line of defense in preventing medicine poisoning is the family," Kate Carr, president and CEO of Safe Kids Worldwide, said in a news release from the group.

Since 1980, the amount of prescriptions filled has increased three-fold and consumers spend five times as much for over-the-counter drugs. Many families have numerous prescriptions in the home and Carr says parents and other adults need to be vigilant in protecting children from medication poisoning.

Safe Kids Worldwide has been instrumental in getting the word out about medication safety providing research, grants and media promotion. Carr says the efforts are paying off.

"Since Safe Kids and industry and government partners started getting the word out to parents about the importance of keeping kids safe around medicine, the number of ER visits has steadily declined. But there are still too many kids getting into medicine, so education needs to continue to be a priority for all," she added.

As you might suspect, curious toddlers are at the greatest risk for medicine poisoning. Kids aged 1 to 2 years account for 70 percent of ER visits for medicine poisoning, the report said. Parents and caregivers of toddlers need to be sure to store medicine where toddlers cannot reach them, Carr said.

Since medicines are kept in all sorts of places, sometimes they are left in spots that a child can easily access such as in purses, on tables and counters, in refrigerators, daily medicine boxes and in accessible cabinets.

These days, many children are being raised or cared for by grandparents. The report suggests, that grandparents may need safety reminders. In an analysis of ER data on children poisoned by medicines, the drugs belonged to grandparents in 48 percent of cases and to parents in 38 percent of cases.

"Look around your home, and in your purses, to make sure all medicine is out of reach of children," Carr explained.

The Safe Kids Worldwide website offers these tips for protecting children from accidental medicine poisoning:

·      Put all medicine up and away and out of sight. In 86% of emergency department visits for medicine poisoning, the child got into medicine belonging to a parent or grandparent.

·      Consider places where kids get into medicine. Kids get into medication in all sorts of places, like in purses and nightstands. Place purses and bags in high locations, and avoid leaving medicine on a nightstand or dresser. In 2 out of 3 emergency room visits for medicine poisoning, the medicine was left within reach of a child.

·      Consider products you might not think about as medicine. Health products such as vitamins, diaper rash creams, eye drops and even hand sanitizer can be harmful if kids get into them. Store these items up, away and out of sight, just as you would traditional medicine.

·      Only use the dosing device that comes with the medicine. Kitchen spoons aren’t all the same, and a teaspoon or tablespoon used for cooking won’t measure the same amount of medicine as a dosing device.

·      Write clear instructions for caregivers about your child’s medicine. When other caregivers are giving your child medicine, they need to know what medicine to give, how much to give and when to give it. Using a medicine schedule can help with communication between caregivers.  

·      Save the Poison Help line in your phone: 1-800-222-1222. Put the toll-free number for the Poison Control Center into your home and cell phones. You can also put the number on your refrigerator or another place in your home where babysitters and caregivers can see it. And remember, the Poison Help line is not just for emergencies, you can call with questions about how to take or give medicine.

Story source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/public-health-information-30/poisons-health-news-537/60-000-kids-rushed-to-ers-for-accidental-medication-poisoning-each-year-709176.html

https://www.safekids.org

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