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Your Child

AAP Recommends HPV Vaccine for Boys

2.00 to read

In 2006 the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that girls, ages 11-12, receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. HPV can cause cervical cancer, and girls have been the prime focus for the vaccination.

The AAP has published new guidelines for the use of the HPV vaccine and now recommends that adolescent boys also receive the vaccine. The vaccine has been available to boys for two years but Tuesday’s vote was the first to strongly recommend routine vaccination.

The new recommendations were prompted by evidence that the HPV vaccine is effective as a treatment against genital warts in both males and females. HPV infection has been associated with an increased risk for not only cervical, but anal and some throat cancers as well.

The AAP recommends that the vaccine be administered at 11 to 12 years of age in both boys and girls. Their rationale is two-fold: First, the vaccine is most effective if it is administered before the individual begins engaging in sexual activity, mainly because the vaccine is inactive against HPV strains acquired before vaccination. Second, children mount the most robust antibody responses to the vaccine when they are between the ages of 9 and 15 years.

Two HPV vaccines are currently available in the United States, but there are differences in their approved indications. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV4, Gardasil, Merck) is the only vaccine approved for use in boys.

Bivalent HPV vaccine (HPV2, Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline) is only approved for use in girls; HPV4 is also approved for girls.

Some of the updated AAP recommendations are:

  • Girls aged 11 to 12 years should be routinely immunized using 3 doses of the HPV4 or HPV2 vaccine, administered intramuscularly at 0, 1 to 2, and 6 months.
  • Girls and women aged from 13 to 26 years who have not been previously immunized or who have not completed their vaccinations should finish the series.
  • Boys aged 11 to 12 years should be routinely immunized with HPV4, using the same schedule as for girls.
  • Boys and men aged from 13 to 21 years who have not already been immunized or who have not completed their vaccines should finish the series.

Some health insurance policies now pay for the vaccine. If you do not have insurance and your child is not eligible for free immunizations, the HPV vaccine is expensive. Check with your pediatrician about your area’s cost.

The recommendations are published online and in the March print issue of Pediatrics.

There is a lot of online information available on HPV and the vaccine; some is very helpful and some can be unreliable. If you have concerns or questions, please talk with your pediatrician.

The vaccine is recommended for adolescents who are not yet sexually active. Many young people believe that oral sex is safer than vaginal sex and some believe that oral sex is not sex at all. A sharp rise in throat cancer among younger men has been linked to HPV. Vaccines can protect males and females against some of the most common types of HPV that can lead to disease and cancer, but they do not treat or get rid of existing HPV infections.

For more facts on the HPV vaccine and HPV in general, check out the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s website at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/hpv/vac-faqs.htm

Sources: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/759223  http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/hpv/vac-faqs.htm

Your Child

Household Bleach Causing Flu and Infections in Kids?

1:30

One of the most popular disinfectants used in household cleaning is bleach. From cleaning wipes to straight out of the bottle, bleach is used to clean surfaces, remove mold and brighten clothes.

As far back as 3000 B.C. a form of bleach was used to brighten white clothes. Shakespeare even made reference to bleaching in 1598. But it was around 1913 that bleach was touted as a disinfectant. In many of today’s households, products containing bleach are used as a surface sanitizer to kill bacteria.

A new study from the Netherlands says the cleaning agent may increase children’s risk for flu, tonsillitis and other infections. The study did not prove cause and effect, but suggested that bleach and other similar cleaning products may be contributors to these types of illnesses.

The study was led by Lidia Casas, of the Center for Environment and Health at KU Leuven in Leuven, the Netherlands. Her team looked at more than 9,000 children, aged 6 to 12, in the Netherlands, Finland and Spain.

Those whose parents used bleach to clean their homes at least once a week had higher rates of respiratory and other types of infections. Specifically, Casas and colleagues found that these children had a 20 percent higher risk of having the flu at least once in the previous year, a 35 percent higher risk of recurrent tonsillitis and an 18 percent higher risk for any recurrent infection.

According to the study’s authors, airborne components of bleach and similar products may irritate the lining of children's lungs, triggering inflammation and making it easier for infections to take hold. Or, bleach may somehow suppress the immune system, making infections more likely, the team said.

The American Cleaning Institute (ACI), which represents makers of bleach and bleach products, responded quickly to the study.

"Since there was no data presented on the children's actual exposure to bleach -- nor any diagnoses of actual diseases -- the authors are merely speculating," the ACI said in a statement. The group also said that disinfecting household surfaces with bleach can protect people from bacterial infection.

Responses to the study from medical specialists have been mixed.

"While this study observes higher respiratory effects of bleach on children, it is not a cause-and-effect study, and other factors or household cleaners may be involved," said Dr. Len Horovitz, a pulmonary specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

"There is evidence that high concentrations of bleach can cause asthmatic reactions when ventilation is not adequate, but the leap to increased incidence of infections is less clear," he said.

Dr. Jacqueline Moline, vice president of population health at North Shore-LIJ Health System in Great Neck, N.Y., noted, "These results are in line with other studies that show the impact of cleaning products on the health of young children."

Moline also said that parents might want to consider using a different product for household cleaning, "the take-home message from this study is that one should be prudent in the use of harsh household cleaners with bleach or other chemicals, especially in homes with young children, and seek out less toxic or harsh products to clean the home."

The study was published online in the April edition of the journal Occupational & Environmental Medicine.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/respiratory-and-allergy-information-2/asthma-news-47/could-household-bleach-raise-kids-risk-for-flu-other-infections-698036.html

Your Child

Brief Exercise May Help Prevent Type2 Diabetes in Kids

1:45

Type2 diabetes used to be called “ adult-onset diabetes” for a good reason. It was typically found in older adults. That’s not the case any longer. The numbers of children diagnosed with type2 diabetes is skyrocketing and child health experts are looking for ways to bring the numbers down.

A new study suggests that even brief spurts of exercise may lower children’s blood sugar levels and help protect them against type2 diabetes.

The study of 28 healthy, normal-weight children found that doing three minutes of moderate-intensity walking every half hour over three hours of sitting led to lower levels of blood sugar and insulin, compared to another day when the children sat for three hours straight.

On the day the children took brief walks, they did not eat any more at lunch than on the day they remained seated for the entire three hours.

Researchers from the U.S. National Institutes of Health said that even short bouts of exercise during otherwise inactive periods could help prevent diseases like type2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer in children.

"We know that 30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity benefits children's health," study senior author Dr. Jack Yanovski, chief of the section on growth and obesity at the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, said in a government news release.

"It can be difficult to fit longer stretches of physical activity into the day. Our study indicates that even small activity breaks could have a substantial impact on children's long-term health," he added.

Along with diet, inactivity is a major contributor to developing type2 diabetes. American children are now spending about six hours a day either sitting or reclining, researchers said. That was almost unheard of just a couple of generations ago.

In a news release, study author, Britni Belcher, a cancer prevention fellow at the U.S. National Cancer Institute and an assistant professor at the University of Southern California, said that "Sustained sedentary behavior after a meal diminishes the muscles' ability to help clear sugar from the bloodstream. "

Belcher also explained,  "That forces the body to produce more insulin, which may increase the risk for beta cell dysfunction that can lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest even short activity breaks can help overcome these negative effects, at least in the short term."

It’s become far too easy for children to be sedentary with using computers, smart phones and video games as their main activities. Children are much more likely to engage in physical activity if it is part of a family health plan. While it may be easy to get caught up in sitting or reclining on the couch for long periods of time, it may change your child’s future health prognosis by interrupting those types of activities and getting them up and moving around more – even for short spurts.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/diabetes-information-10/type-ii-diabetes-news-183/briefs-emb-8-27-1pmet-kids-exercise-health-jcem-nih-release-batch-1913-702656.html

 

Your Child

2 Doses of Chickenpox Vaccine Almost 100 Percent Effective

2:00

Chickenpox is one of the most common childhood illnesses. It is a viral infection caused by the Varicella zoster virus and produces a painful, itchy rash with small, fluid-filled blisters.

It occurs most often in early spring and late winter and is highly contagious. Typically, chickenpox occurs in kids between 6 and 10 years of age.

A new study shows that among schoolchildren, two doses of the chickenpox vaccine is more effective than one.

Giving the first dose at age 1 and the second dose at ages 4 to 6 is nearly 100 percent effective in preventing the once common childhood disease, researchers have found.

"A second dose of varicella [chickenpox] vaccine provides school-aged children with better protection against the chickenpox virus, compared to one dose alone or no vaccination," said lead researcher Dana Perella, of the Philadelphia Department of Public Health.

Two doses of the vaccine protected against the moderate to severe chickenpox infections that can lead to complications and hospitalizations, she said.

Before routine chickenpox vaccination began in 1995, virtually all children were infected at some point, sometimes with serious complications. About 11,000 children were hospitalized each year for chickenpox, and 100 died annually from the disease, according to the CDC.

One-dose vaccination greatly reduced incidence of chickenpox, but outbreaks continued to be reported in schools where many kids had been vaccinated. That led the CDC in 2006 to recommend a second vaccine dose.

To evaluate effectiveness of the double- dose regimen, Perella and colleagues collected data on 125 children with chickenpox in Philadelphia and northern Los Angeles and compared them with 408 kids who had not had the disease.

They found that two doses of the vaccine was slightly more than 97 percent effective in protecting kids from chickenpox.

"With improved protection provided by two-dose varicella vaccination compared with one-dose only, continued decreases in the occurrence of chickenpox, including more severe infections and hospitalizations, are expected as more children routinely receive dose two between the ages of 4 and 6 years," Perella said.

For children with weakened immune systems that cannot take the vaccine, having their classmates and playmates protected by the vaccine helps protect them against the viral infection.

School vaccine requirements should include two-dose varicella vaccination, Perella said.

"In addition, 'catch-up' varicella vaccination is also important," she said. This applies to anyone over 6 who haven’t had a second vaccine dose, especially if they could be exposed to chickenpox or shingles - a painful condition in older people caused by reactivation of the chickenpox virus, she said.

Most healthy children who get chickenpox do not have serious complications from the illness. But there are cases when chickenpox has caused hospitalization, serious complications and even death.

A child may be at greater risk for complications if he or she:

·      Has a weakened immune system

·      Is under 1 year of age

·      Suffers from eczema

·      Takes a medication called salicylate

·      Was born prematurely

The report was published online March 14 and will appear in the April print issue of the journal Pediatrics.

Story sources: Steven Reinberg, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20160314/two-dose-chickenpox-shot-gets-the-job-done-study-shows

http://www.parents.com/health/vaccines/chicken-pox/chickenpox-facts/

Your Child

Dog Bites and Young Children

1:30

Most young kids can read a dog well enough to know if it is angry or scared, but they may be confused over whether to approach one or not, according to a new British study.

While young children often knew an angry dog was trouble, they were just as likely to approach a frightened dog as a happy one.

Co-author of the study, Sarah Rose, of Staffordshire University, and her team examined hospital statistics of children in the U.K. bitten by a dog.

"This study explored whether the explanation is that they are unable to accurately recognize a dog's emotions when approaching one," she said in a news release from the British Psychological Society.

The researchers asked two groups of kids to look at images and brief videos of dogs. The first group was 57 children between the ages of 4 and 5. The second group included 61 children, ages 6 to 7. Some of the videos and images showed dogs that appeared to be angry or frightened.

The researchers then asked the children to describe the apparent emotion of the dog and say whether they'd be willing to play with the dog.

The researchers found that children were able to recognize happy, angry and frightened dogs to a greater degree than chance would suggest.

They were most attuned to angry dogs, but less successful at recognizing happy or frightened dogs. They didn't seem to understand that they shouldn't approach a frightened dog.

Dog bites are a problem in the United States as well. They are the second most frequent cause of visits to emergency rooms from 9 activities common among children such as sports, skateboarding and All-terrain vehicles.

The U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates half of all children 12 years-of-age and under have been bitten by a dog. In many cases, teasing or an unintentional provocation, such as approaching a dog while it's eating or sleeping, can lead to a dog bite or even worse, an attack.  The vast majority of dog bites are from a dog that the child is acquainted with - his or her own, a neighbor's, or a friend's dog.  Seventy nine percent of fatal dog attacks are on children.

"Young children are relatively good at accurately identifying the emotion that a dog is displaying," Rose said. "However, children's understanding of safety around dogs is lacking, as they only demonstrated caution about approaching angry dogs. They appeared to be unaware that there might be problems approaching frightened dogs. This finding should help inform dog bite prevention campaigns."

Studies have shown that even a single dog bite prevention lesson incorporated into a regular school day has been shown to dramatically reduce high-risk behaviors toward unfamiliar dogs in both very young (kindergarten) and middle school children.

Most children learn about dogs and other animals from their home environment. Parents can go the extra step in helping to prevent dog-related injuries by teaching their children that scared dogs are similar to angry dogs in how they react to being approached.

Young children, particularly toddlers, should never be left unsupervised around a dog- even a family pet.

Story sources: Randy Dotinga, https://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/misc-kid-s-health-news-435/young-kids-unaware-of-the-risks-of-approaching-scared-dogs-714883.html

http://www.safetyarounddogs.org/statistics.html

 

 

Your Child

Mumps Cases on the Rise, 3rd Vaccine Dose May Be Needed

2:00

Mumps is a highly contagious disease that is on the rise.  Symptoms include uncomfortable swelling on one or both sides of the cheeks. These swollen salivary glands are the most characteristic sign of mumps, which is caused by a virus and usually spread through coughing. It occurs most often in children and teenagers 5 to 14 years old but anyone can catch the mumps virus at any age.

In addition to swelling, the region can become painful when touched or while chewing, especially when consuming foods that stimulate the release of salivary juices or drinking orange juice or other juices that are acidic. Other symptoms may include 

  • Fever lasting 3 to 5 days
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Occasional vomiting
  • Weakness
  • A decrease in appetite
  • Swelling and pain in the joints (and in boys, of the testes)

In 1967, the mumps vaccination program started, and then in 1971, a three-vaccine dose called MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) was made available to the public. This had a dramatic impact on reducing the number of reported mumps cases. Unfortunately, mumps cases are on the rise once again.

The typical schedule for the MMR vaccine is:

  • First dose at 12 through 15 months of age, and
  • Second dose at 4 through 6 years of age.
  • Teens and adults should also be up to date on MMR vaccinations.

In areas where there is an outbreak, some physicians are recommending that children receive a third dose of the MMR vaccine. States such as Washington, Arkansas, and Missouri have seen a significant increase in mumps in 2016 and early 2017. In Texas, cases are at a 20-year high.

The MMR vaccine protects against currently circulating mumps strains, but the effectiveness of the vaccine may decrease over time. That’s one reason cases may be on the upsurge. Another reason may be that some areas have a higher number of unvaccinated children, allowing the disease to spread quickly throughout a population.

Outbreaks can still occur in highly vaccinated U.S. communities, particularly in close-contact settings. In recent years, outbreaks have occurred in schools, colleges, and camps. However, high vaccination coverage helps limit the size, duration, and spread of mumps outbreaks.

A child with mumps will become contagious beginning a day or two before the swelling begins, and the contagious period will continue for about 5 days after the swelling has started. (It’s interesting to note that approximately one third of those infected with mumps do not show obvious swelling.) As a general guideline, keep your child with mumps away from school and child-care for 9 days after the gland swelling has begun.

If your child has the mumps, notify your doctor if your child’s condition becomes worse, especially if she develops abdominal pain, shows an unusual lack of energy, or (for boys) his testicles become painful.

Story sources: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/vaccine-preventable-diseases/Pages/Mumps.aspx

https://www.cdc.gov/mumps/outbreaks.html

 

Your Child

Tragedy & Children

1:45 to read

Thanks for all the wonderful comments about my recent interview on CNN with Vinnie Politan. If you missed it, the topic was talking to children who may have witnesses a traumatic event.  Unfortunately, as you are well aware, there are numerous tragic and traumatic events which occur across our country (and around the world) and at times, children may be witnesses to these events.  With that being said, how do you discuss these tragedies with a child?

As an example, the tragic death of an acrobatic airplane pilot at the Kansas City air shows last week. Many, including children of all ages, viewed this event.  I think the most important thing to remember when talking to a child about a trauma or tragedy is to use words that are appropriate for the child’s age and vocabulary and to acknowledge your own feelings as well.  They need to know that you too were scared, sad, upset or anxious about the event. Ask them how they felt and listen to the words that they use as you may use those words again when talking to your child.

While every child is different you can often follow their cues as to how much and how detailed a discussion to have, and when and how to bring the topic up again. Some children are talkers and want to discuss things at length, while others may be quieter and take some time to absorb the information. Don’t force the discussion.  A parent knows their children and the discussion may/will be different for each child and will be further impacted by their ages.

For young children, it is also important to let them know that “Mommy and Daddy” are there and will take care of them and protect them, but at the same time bad things sometimes happen. That is why parents take precautions and are responsible (like holding hands when crossing the street, or wearing a helmet etc).But, if something does happen it is so important to validate your child’s feelings while at the same time teaching your child coping skills and resilience.  

If your child does view a traumatic event it is not unusual for them go through a period when they are afraid of separation, or have nightmares etc. They sometimes develop somatic complaints like tummy aches, headaches, and non specific complaints of “I just don’t feel well”. This is normal, but you should watch for a child who seems to “be stuck” with symptoms long after the event. In some cases a professional therapist may be helpful.

Lastly, don’t let them revisit the event. By that I mean keep the TV off for awhile, and monitor the internet so they are not watching constant images of the same event (like the falling of the twin towers on 9/11). With so many amateur videos of traumatic events being shown “on screen” 24/7 if your child sees these images over and over, it is as if they are reliving the experience each time.  It sometimes may feel as if we become addicted to watching it.  It was nice “in the olden days” when there were not constant images on screen to remind us of a picture that often fades in our own minds.

That's your daily dose for today. We'll chat again tomorrow.

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Your Child

Obesity Related Heart Disease Found in Children as Young as 8

2:00

All you have to do is look around, wherever children are gathered, to see that there are far too many kids that are overweight in this country.  And sadly, some of these children may already be developing heart disease according to a new study.

The study reports that obese children as young as 8 years of age, are beginning to show signs of heart abnormalities.

"It is both surprising and alarming to us that even the youngest obese children in our study who were 8 years old had evidence of heart disease," said study lead author Linyuan Jing, a postdoctoral fellow with Geisinger Health System in Danville, Pa.

"Ultimately, we hope that the effects we see in the hearts of these children are reversible," Jing added. "However, it is possible that there could be permanent damage."

Researchers conducted MRI scans of 40 children between 8 and 16 years old. Half of the participants were obese; the other half was of normal weight for their age and height.

They found that the obese children had an average of 27 percent more muscle mass in the left ventricle region their heart, and 12 percent thicker heart muscle overall. Both are considered indicators of heart disease, Jing said.

Among 40 percent of the obese children, scans showed thickened heart muscle had already translated into a reduced ability to pump blood. The children with this reduced heart capacity were considered to be at “high risk” for adult cardiac strain and heart disease.

"This should be further motivation for parents to help children lead a healthy lifestyle," Jing said.

Dr. Gregg Fonarow, a professor of cardiology at the University of California, Los Angeles, called the findings "alarming."

Some of the obese children in the study were struggling with health complications often associated with excess weight, including asthma, high blood pressure and depression, the researchers said. But none displayed customary warning signs of heart disease such as fatigue, dizziness or shortness of breath, Jing said.

The study did not include kids with diabetes or those that were too large to fit inside the MRI scanning machine. Jing noted that the study might actually underestimate how many children are suffering from heart related problems associated with obesity.

Jing said it’s up to parents to help their children maintain a healthy weight. They should buy healthy foods instead of cheap fast food and fruit juice, "which is high in sugar but low in fiber," she said.

She also recommended that parents limit TV, computer and video game time and encourage more physical outdoor activities.

Childhood obesity isn’t just an American problem; it’s a global problem as well.  The World Heart Federation says that one in 10 school-aged children worldwide are estimated to be overweight. However, in the USA, the number of overweight children has doubled and the number of overweight adolescents has tripled since 1980.

The researchers believe that schools can play a role in helping families understand the health problems associated with obesity.

“…Schools and communities need to do a better job at educating both the parents and children about the health risks of overweight and obesity," said Jing.

Fonarow agreed adding, "Substantially increased efforts are needed to prevent and treat childhood obesity."

The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Heart Association in Orlando, Fla.

Data and conclusions presented at meetings are usually considered preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

Source: Alan Mozes, http://consumer.healthday.com/cardiovascular-health-information-20/misc-stroke-related-heart-news-360/obese-kids-as-young-as-8-show-heart-disease-signs-705099.html

 

 

 

Your Child

Frito-Lay Recalls Pretzels Due to Peanut Residue

2:00

Many children, who are allergic to peanuts and other nuts, consume pretzels as a snack.

Frito-Lay announced they are voluntarily recalling certain Rold Gold Tiny Twists, Rold Gold Thins, Rold Gold Sticks and Rold Gold Honey Wheat Braided due to a potential undeclared peanut allergen.

This recall is the direct result of a recent recall by a Frito-Lay supplier of certain lots of flour for undeclared peanut residue. The Rold Gold products subject to the recall may have been produced using the recalled flour and, as a result, these Rold Gold products may contain low levels of undeclared peanut residue. More information about the flour recall can be found on the FDA’s website at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/SafetyAlertsAdvisories/ucm504002.htm.

The affected Rold Gold packages are sold in retail stores and via foodservice and vending customers throughout the United States, and have “guaranteed fresh” dates ranging from June 28, 2016 - August 23, 2016 on the front of the package. Directly underneath the “guaranteed fresh” date is a 9-digit manufacturing code that includes the numbers “32” in the second and third position (example: x32xxxxxx).

The following products with the above-described “guaranteed fresh” dates and manufacturing codes are impacted:

•       Rold Gold Tiny Twists - 1 oz. , 2 oz., 16 oz. and 20½ oz.

•       Rold Gold Thins - 4 oz. and 16 oz.

•       Rold Gold Sticks - 16 oz.

•       Rold Gold Honey Wheat Braided - 10 oz.

It is important to note that products that do not include 32 in the second and third positions of the manufacturing code are not impacted.

The Rold Gold Tiny Twists are also included in select multipack offerings. The impacted multipacks have “use by” dates on the front of the package. Directly next to or underneath the “use by” date is a 11-digit manufacturing code that will include the letter combination AM, TO, QH, QC or SW in the second and third position (example: xAMxxxxxxxx). The impacted products have different, varying “use by” dates, including:

•       20 count Baked & Popped Mix -- “use by” dates ranging from May 31 - July 26, 2016

•       20 count SunChips & Rold Gold Mix -- “use by” dates ranging from June 14 - August 9, 2016

•       32 count Fun Times Mix -- “use by” dates ranging from June 14 - August 9, 2016

•       30 count Baked & Popped Variety Pack -- “use by” dates ranging from June 14 - August 9, 2016

•       30 count Home Town Favorite Variety Pack -- “use by” dates ranging from May 31 - July 26, 2016

To date, Frito-Lay has received no reports of illness related to the products covered by this recall. No other Rold Gold products or flavors are impacted. Frito-Lay has informed the FDA of our actions.

Consumers with any product noted above can return the product to retailer for a full refund, or contact Frito-Lay Consumer Relations (9 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. CST, Mon.-Fri.) at 1-888-256-3090 or www.pretzelrecall.com.

Story source: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/Recalls/ucm505365.htm

 

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