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Your Child

Study: More and Younger Children Suffering From Concussion

2:00

In order to develop statistics on how many U.S. children and teens are being diagnosed with concussion, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analyzes emergency room data from around the country.

But, a new study finds that children’s concussions may be vastly underreported because family pediatricians, not ER doctors, are doing the examinations.

In the study, published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association Pediatrics, researchers from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and the CDC used CHOP's regional pediatric network to figure out when and where children were diagnosed with a concussion.

They found approximately 82 percent had their first concussion visit at a primary care site like a pediatrician's office, 12 percent were diagnosed in an emergency department, 5 percent were diagnosed from a specialist, such as a sports medicine doctor or neurologist, and 1 percent were directly admitted to the hospital.

The authors noted that the findings indicate that many more children have suffered a concussion than recent stats suggest.

In another surprising turn, researchers found that one-third of those injured were under the age of 12.  Many reports have been focused on teen athletes instead of younger children.

"We learned two really important things about pediatric concussion healthcare practices," Kristy Arbogast, lead author and Co-Scientific Director of CHOP's Center for Injury Research and Prevention, said in a statement today. "First, four in five of this diverse group of children were diagnosed at a primary care practice -- not the emergency department. Second, one-third were under age 12, and therefore represent an important part of the concussion population that is missed by existing surveillance systems that focus on high school athletes."

Alex Diamond, a pediatric sports medicine specialist at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and director of the injury prevention program, told ABC News that these findings are important to help health officials understand how prevalent concussions really are. Diamond was not involved in the study.

Pediatricians are a good choice for seeking advice and diagnosis on concussions because they know the history of the child, Diamond said.

"That’s why it’s great for a pediatrician to deal with this," Diamond said. "They know the kid at baseline and they know the family."

The findings may have far-reaching implications for what we know about the number of concussions in the U.S., the authors said, noting that this study suggests that the condition is extremely underreported if the vast majority of concussions are diagnosed outside the emergency department.

"We need surveillance that better captures concussions that occur in children and adolescents," Dr. Debra Houry, director of CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, said in a statement today. "Better estimates of the number, causes, and outcomes of concussion will allow us to more effectively prevent and treat them, which is a priority area for CDC's Injury Center."

Concussions often happen without a loss of consciousness and can have long-term effects.

In fact, a brief loss of consciousness or "blacking out" doesn't mean a concussion is any more or less serious than one where a child didn't black out.

If your child might have had a concussion, go to the emergency room or see your pediatrician if he or she has any of these symptoms:

•       Loss of consciousness

•       Severe headache, including a headache that gets worse

•       Blurred vision

•       Trouble walking

•       Confusion and saying things that don't make sense

•       Slurred speech

•       Unresponsiveness (you're unable to wake your child)

•       Ringing in the ears

•       Nausea

•       Vomiting

Some symptoms of concussions may be immediate or delayed in onset by hours or days after injury, such as:

•       Concentration and memory complaints

•       Irritability and other personality changes

•       Sensitivity to light and noise

•       Sleep disturbances

•       Psychological adjustment problems and depression

•       Disorders of taste and smell

Symptoms in infants and toddlers may be more difficult to recognize because they cannot express how they feel. Nonverbal clues of a concussion might include:

•       Appearing dazed

•       Listlessness and tiring easily

•       Irritability and crankiness

•       Loss of balance and unsteady walking

•       Crying excessively

•       Change in eating or sleeping patterns

•       Lack of interest in favorite toys

Experts recommend that parents take their child in for an evaluation if their child receives more than a light bump on the head.

Story sources: Gillian Mohney, http://abcnews.go.com/Health/concussions-children-vastly-underreported-study-finds/story?id=39506549

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/concussion/basics/symptoms/con-20019272

Your Child

Safety Recalls: Finger Paints, Baby Bathtubs, Strollers and More

2:00

The American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP) online Gateway issue has listed several children’s products that have been recalled due to health and safety concerns.

The list includes

·      Sargent Art tempera finger paints, Lil’ Luxuries Whirlpool, Bubbling Spa & Shower

·      Peg Perego’s 850 Polaris Sportsman ATV-style ride on toy

·      Mamas & Papas’ Armadillo Flip and Armadillo Flip XT strollers

·      Fiddle Diddles LullaBelay adjustable car seat strap system

·      Chimparoo brand Trek baby carriers

Sargent Art tempera finger paints: About 2.8 million units of paint have been recalled. The paint can contain harmful bacteria, putting children with weak immune systems at risk of serious illness. Those with healthy immune systems may not be affected.

Recalled are 13 types of Sargent Art tempera and finger paints. All colors and sizes of the following types of paints are recalled: Art-Time brand of tempera paint, washable finger paint, washable fluorescent finger paint, washable fluorescent tempera paint, washable glitter finger paint, washable paint and fluorescent tempera paint.

Sold at: Hobby Lobby, Wal-Mart and other stores nationwide and online at Amazon.com and ShopSargentArt.com from May 2015 to June 2016 for $1 to $8.

Stop using the paints and contact the company for a refund at 800-827-8081 or visit www.sargentart.com.

Lil’ Luxuries Whirlpool, Bubbling Spa & Shower: About 86,000 units have been recalled. Fabric slings can come off the infant bathtubs, and infants can fall or drown.

Lil’ Luxuries Whirlpool, Bubbling Spa & Shower is a battery-operated whirlpool bath with motorized jets intended for use with children from birth to 2 years. The product has a fabric sling on a plastic frame onto which the infant is placed for bathing. The fabric sling on the tub does not have a white plastic clip to attach the headrest area of the fabric sling to the plastic frame. Recalled bathtubs have numbers 18840, 18850, 18863 or 18873 with date codes starting with 1210, 1211, 1212, 1301, 1302, 1303, 1304, 1305, 1306, 1307 or 1308, which stand for the two-digit year followed by the two-digit month, on the fabric sling.

The products were sold at Toys R Us/Babies R Us and other juvenile product specialty stores nationwide from October 2012 through October 2013 for about $60. The tubs also might have been sold secondhand.

Stop using the fabric sling in the tub, and contact the company for a replacement sling with a white plastic attachment clip. You can call 844-612-4254 or visit http://bit.ly/2f1wQNG.

Peg Perego’s 850 Polaris Sportsman ATV-style ride on toy, About 3,000 toys were recalled. A relay on the circuit board can fail causing the vehicle’s motor to overheat and catch fire.

Recalled are Peg Perego’s 850 Polaris Sportsman ride-on, 24-volt battery-operated toy vehicles for children ages 5 to 7 years. The ATV-style vehicles for two people are silver, red and black and have four wheels, a flip-up backrest for the back passenger and a front and rear luggage rack. Vehicles with date codes 651016, 651017, 651020, 651021, 651022, 651023, 651024, 651027, 651028, 651029, 651030, 660304, 660305, 661123, 661124, 661125 and 661130 are recalled. The date code is under the vehicle seat. Sportsman Twin and 850 EFI are printed on the side and Polaris is on the side of the seat.

Items were sold at online retailers including Amazon.com, Cabelas.com, Target.com, ToysRUs.com and Walmart.com from October 2014 through April 2016 for $500 to $600.

Remedy is to Contact Peg Perego for a replacement circuit board with instructions, including shipping. Call 877-737-3464, email 850recall@pegperego.com or visit https://us.pegperego.com/cs/recalls/.

Mamas & Papas’ Armadillo Flip and Armadillo Flip XT strollers: About 3,000 strollers have been recalled. A loose latch on the stroller can cause the infant in the seat to tip back unexpectedly and possibly fall out when facing the parent.

Recalled are Mamas & Papas’ Armadillo Flip and Armadillo Flip XT strollers. All models are folding strollers for one infant. They come in black, teal and navy and weigh about 22 pounds. Lot number ranges for recalled Armadillo Flip strollers are 00814 through 00416. Lot number ranges for the Flip XT are 01214 through 00416. The number is printed on the sewn-in label on the stroller.

Strollers were sold at Albee Baby, Babies ‘R’ Us, Buy Buy Baby and other stores nationwide and online at www.mamasandpapas.com and www.amazon.com from December 2014 through July 2016 for $500.

Stop using the strollers and contact the company for a repair at 800-309-6312 or visit www.mamasandpapas.com/us.

Fiddle Diddles LullaBelay adjustable car seat strap system: About 250 units have been recalled. The carabiners attached to the strap system have small parts inside that can come loose and be swallowed and choked on by young children.

The Fiddle Diddles LullaBelay adjustable car seat strap system with model number LB1001 includes two fabric straps, carabiner hardware, a mesh car seat cover and a tote bag. The carabiners are used to hang a car seat from a shopping cart. The model number is printed on the straps.

They were sold at Amazon.com from November 2015 through June 2016 and Fiddlediddles.com from May through June 2015 and at Zoolikins stores in Arizona from November 2015 through June 2016 for about $40.

You can contact the company for a repair kit with three new carabiners. Call 888-741-2957, email info@fiddlediddles.com or visit http://fiddlediddles.com/replacement-kit.html.

Chimparoo brand Trek baby carriers: About 130 units are being recalled. The carriers’ side strap can loosen unexpectedly from the buckle, and the child can fall out.

Recalled are Chimparoo brand Trek baby carriers that allow the user to carry a baby tummy to tummy, on the hip or on the back. The 100% twill fabric carriers were sold in 18 solid, striped and pattern color combinations. The carriers attach to the wearer’s body with adjustable straps made of polypropylene webbing and plastic buckles. “Chimparoo” is printed on the upper right hand corner of the carrier. “Trek” is embroidered on the belt.

The carriers were sold at Children’s boutique stores, such as Granola Babies, of Costa Mesa, Calif., Eat/Sleep/Play, of Summerville, S.C., and Top to Bottom, of Omaha, Neb., and online at www.Amazon.com and www.Chimaparoo.ca from May through July 2016 for about $170.

Contact the company for a replacement buckle for the baby carrier’s side-buckle. Call 855-289-5343, email safety@Chimparoo.com or visit www.Chimparoo.ca/en/recall.

Story source: Trisha Korioth, at http://www.aappublications.org/news/2016/11/17/HealthAlerts111716

Your Child

Preventing Heat-Related illness in Kids

2:00

With temperatures in the 90s and climbing, children are vulnerable to heat-related illness during the summer months.

Children are actually at a higher risk for heat exhaustion than adults. The difference is that a child's body surface area makes up a much greater proportion of his overall weight than an adult's, which means children face a much greater risk of dehydration and heat-related illness.

One of the best ways to prevent heat stroke in children is to make sure they are hydrated.  “It’s important for parents to have their kids take breaks and drink fluids,” says Dr. Ken Haller, an associate professor of pediatrics at Saint Louis University School of Medicine. “Water is usually good enough, and the occasional electrolyte solution, like Gatorade, is not a bad idea.”

Haller also notes that taking a break, whether inside or in the shade, can be helpful. And, if they are busy drinking water, your young charges are not heating themselves up by running around. Taking a break gives their small bodies time to cool down.

Children aren’t the best judge of when they are over-heated or dehydrated, that’s why it is important for parents to pay attention to how long their kids are outside and how much fluid they are getting.

And don’t be fooled just because it’s a cloudy day. While sun can definitely be a factor in heat stroke, Haller cautions that kids can still work up a sweat even in the shade if the day is hot enough.

The symptoms for heat exhaustion and heat stroke can slip up on you before you become fully aware of them. Typically, we keep our bodies cool by sweating.  Heat stroke develops when we become too dehydrated to perspire. Our bodies start to heat up even more when we can’t sweat.

The warning signs of heat exhaustion can range from nausea and vomiting to fatigue and muscle cramps.

Heat stroke symptoms in a child are: a headache, feeling dizzy, acting disoriented, agitated or confused, hallucinations, fatigue, seizure, skin that is hot, dry and flushed but not sweaty and a high body temperature of 104F or higher. Symptoms of a heat stroke are nothing to take lightly.

If you suspect that your child is having a heat stroke call 911 immediately. You can also take the child to a shady place that is cool. Remove any unnecessary clothing and fan warm air over the child while wetting the skin with lukewarm water. This will help in the cooling-down process.

Dehydration prevention is key to helping children avoid heat stroke or heat exhaustion. Make sure they drink cool water early and often. Send your child out to practice or play fully hydrated. Then, during play, make sure your child takes regular breaks to drink fluid, even if your child isn't thirsty. A good size drink for a child, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics, is 5 ounces of cold tap water for a child weighing 88 pounds, and nine ounces for a teen weighing 132 pounds. One ounce is about two kid-size gulps.

Early signs of dehydration include fatigue, thirst, dry lips and tongue,  lack of energy, and feeling overheated. But if kids wait to drink until they feel thirsty, they're already dehydrated. Thirst doesn't really kick in until a child has lost 2% of his or her body weight as sweat.

A simple rule of thumb: if your child's urine is dark in color, rather than clear or light yellow, he or she may be becoming dehydrated.

 Other factors that can put your child at greater risk for heat illness include obesity, recent illness (especially if the child has been vomiting or has had diarrhea), and use of antihistamines or diuretics.

Lack of acclimatization to hot weather and exercising beyond their level of fitness can also lead to heat illness in young athletes.

The time of day can also have an impact on how over-heated your child becomes. Outdoor playtime is better scheduled in the morning and early evening to avoid the hottest part of the day. It’s good to have shady areas nearby to get out of the sun and rest for a little while.

No one recommends keeping your child indoors all summer. Kids need unstructured playtime and exercise to stay fit mentally and physically. However, making sure they are hydrated and take breaks is the best way to prevent a potentially life –threatening situation.

Story sources: Connie Brichford, http://www.everydayhealth.com/kids-health/heat-stroke.aspx

http://www.webmd.com/children/dehydration-heat-illness#1

Your Child

Antibiotics Often Prescribed When Not Needed

2.00 to read

By now, most parents understand that antibiotics are not effective for viral infections, only for illnesses caused by bacteria.

However, that hasn’t deterred many physicians from over-prescribing antibiotics for children with ear and throat infections.

More than 11 million antibiotic prescriptions written each year for children and teens may be unnecessary, according to researchers from University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital. This excess antibiotic use not only fails to eradicate children's viral illnesses, researchers said, but also supports the dangerous evolution of bacteria toward antibiotic resistance.

"I think it's well-known that we prescribers overprescribe antibiotics, and our intent was to put a number on how often we're doing that," said study author Dr. Matthew Kronman, an assistant professor of infectious diseases at Seattle Children's Hospital.

"But as we found out, there's really been no change in this [situation] over the last decade," added Kronman. "And we don't have easily available tools in the real-world setting to discriminate between infections caused by bacteria or viruses."

 Doctors have limited resources when it comes to differentiating between bacterial or viral infections. Physicians can use the rapid step test to determine if the streptococcus bacteria is the cause of a child’s sore throat, but that is about it for immediate diagnostic tools.

Most colds are virus related and one of the first symptoms will be a sore or scratchy throat. It will typically go away after the first day or so and other cold symptoms will continue. Strep throat is often more severe and persistent.

A virus often causes ear infection as well. Many doctors treat ear infections as though they are bacterial to be on the safe side and avoid serious middle ear infections.

To determine antibiotic prescribing rates, Kronman and his colleagues analyzed a group of English-language studies published between 2000 and 2011 and data on children 18 and younger who were examined in outpatient clinics.

Based on the prevalence of bacteria in ear and throat infections and the introduction of a pneumococcal vaccine that prevents many bacterial infections, the researchers estimated that about 27 percent of U.S. children with infections of the ear, sinus area, throat or upper respiratory tract had illnesses caused by bacteria.

But antibiotics were prescribed for nearly 57 percent of doctors' visits for these infections, the study found.

Kronan hopes that the study’s results will encourage the development of more diagnostic tools and will spur doctors to think more critically about prescribing antibiotics unless clearly needed.

Previous research has shown that parents often pressure their doctor to prescribe an antibiotic to treat their child’s ear or sore throat symptoms. However, when parents are given other suggestions on how to alleviate the symptoms they have been much more receptive than when their doctor just flat out says he won’t prescribe antibiotics.

Many physicians and researchers are concerned that the amount of antibiotics being prescribed these days is setting us all up for future problems when dealing with bacterial infections. Bacteria are adaptable and mutate over time becoming less responsive to antibiotics. When possible, it’s much healthier in the long run to treat your child’s symptoms with simpler therapies. Ask your physican ways you can make your little one more comfortable until the symptoms pass. 

The study was published online in the journal Pediatrics.

Source: Maureen Salamon, http://consumer.healthday.com/infectious-disease-information-21/antibiotics-news-30/antibiotics-prescribed-twice-as-often-as-needed-in-children-study-says-691686.html

Your Child

Can Your Child Hear You?

2:00

You may think your child isn’t listening to you, but in fact, he or she may not hear you.

Twelve percent of U.S. children between the ages of 6 and 19 suffer from noise-induced hearing loss – that’s about 5.2 million children – according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).

About 2 to 3 out of every 1,000 U.S. children are born with a detectable level of hearing loss in one or both ears.

Many hearing experts have suspected that long-term hearing loss begins in childhood and now studies have shown how common hearing impairment is among kids.

"Historically, people have been looking only at adult hearing loss and assuming that this is not a problem among children," said Amanda Niskar, a nurse at the CDC and lead author of a study released last summer. "What we have found here for the first time is that this is not true. [Hearing loss] is a progression, and it starts when you're very young."

Some hearing experts say the problem of hearing loss in kids will likely worsen, considering rising levels of environmental noise.

One of the most common contributors to kid’s hearing loss is loud music. Regular exposure to loud noises can damage nerve cells in the ear called hair cells. As the name suggests, these cells have tiny hairs that detect sound vibrations and turn them into signals sent to the brain. But while soft noises only cause the hairs to vibrate, loud noises can break them.

Brief instances of exposure to loud noise may only temporarily damage these hairs. Niskar said two hours of loud music on headphones or seven minutes next to the speakers at a rock concert result in damage that may last for only a few days. However, chronic exposures can damage the hair cells — and hearing — permanently.

Loud toys can also cause hearing impairment. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLH) discusses toy noise on their website www.asha.org.

“Some toys are so loud that they can cause hearing damage in children. Some toy sirens and squeaky rubber toys can emit sounds of 90 dB, as loud as a lawn mower. Workers would have to wear ear protection for similarly noisy sounds on the job.

The danger with noisy toys is greater than the 90-dB level implies. When held directly to the ear, as children often do, a noisy toy actually exposes the ear to as much as 120 dB of sound, the equivalent of a jet plane taking off. Noise at this level is painful and can result in permanent hearing loss.

Toys that pose a noise danger include cap guns, talking dolls, vehicles with horns and sirens, walkie-talkies, musical instruments, and toys with cranks. Parents who have normal hearing need to inspect toys for noise danger.

Before purchasing a new toy, listen to it. If the toy sounds loud, don’t buy it.”

Good advice to help protect your child’s hearing.

What are the signs and symptoms of hearing loss in kids? Each child is different, but there are some symptoms such as:

Signs in Babies

•       Does not startle at loud noises.

•       Does not turn to the source of a sound after 6 months of age.

•       Does not say single words, such as “dada” or “mama” by 1 year of age.

•       Turns head when he or she sees you but not if you only call out his or her name. This sometimes is mistaken for not paying attention or just ignoring, but could be the result of a partial or complete hearing loss.

•       Seems to hear some sounds but not others.

Signs in Children

•       Speech is delayed.

•       Speech is not clear.

•       Does not follow directions. This sometimes is mistaken for not paying attention or just ignoring, but could be the result of a partial or complete hearing loss.

•       Often says, “Huh?”

•       Turns the TV volume up too high.

If you suspect your baby may have a hearing problem, make sure that he or she has a hearing screening. It’s easy and not painful. Older children should have their hearing tested before entering school any time there is a concern about the child’s hearing. Children who do not pass the hearing screening need to get a full hearing test as soon as possible.

With Christmas and holiday shopping in full swing, make sure to test the toys you buy for your child if they produce a noise and check to see that they are not too loud for your little one to be around.

Hearing loss can affect a child’s performance in school and personal relationships. If you have any suspicions that your child is having difficulty hearing the sooner he or she is checked, the better. There are many excellent therapies for hearing loss now as opposed to even a decade ago.

Sources: Dan Childs, http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=117355

http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/facts.html

http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Noisy-Toys/

Your Child

Diving Safety Tips

1:30

Diving into a pool or lake is one way to cool off during the hot summer months, but if you aren’t careful, fun can turn to tragedy in a few quick seconds.

Every year there are hundreds of people who are paralyzed from neck and spine injuries after diving head first into shallow lakes and pools according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), the American Spine Injury Association and the Cervical Spine Research Society.

"Everyone needs to be trained to dive safely," AAOS spokesperson and orthopedic surgeon Dr. Brett Taylor, said in a news release from the group. "Safe diving skills don't come naturally, they have to be learned. With neck and spine injuries being the most common diving injuries, a good rule of thumb for divers is to dive feet first in unknown water."

The biggest obstacle to safe diving is shallow water. Experts say that you should always check the depth of the water and make sure that it is deep enough for diving. If you're diving from a high point, make sure the bottom of the body of water is double the distance from which you're diving.

Murky water in lakes and oceans can also present a danger. With unclear water you can’t see sand bars or objects below the surface. The heavy rains during the spring have lifted some lake levels far above normal making it difficult to see what may be lurking just below the surface.

Experts also warn that kids and adults should never dive into an above ground pool. These pools tend to be shallower than in-ground pools.

Only one person at a time should stand on a diving board. Dive only off the end of the board and do not run on the board. Do not bounce more than once, because the rebound effect could knock you off your legs or throw you off balance.

After diving, immediately swim away from the area of the diving board to clear the way for the next diver. It’s easy to forget that another child may be right below the next eager diver. It’s particularly important for parents to keep an eye on who is in the pool or lake and where they are.

Don't body surf near the shore. Doing so puts you at risk for neck injuries, as well as shoulder dislocations and fractures. These waves can pack a heavier punch especially when a beach has been recently replenished.

Pools, lakes and oceans can be a refreshing retreat when the temperatures reach into the 90s and 100s, but make sure your kids are playing it safe when diving in.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://consumer.healthday.com/fitness-information-14/diving-health-news-247/experts-offer-diving-safety-tips-701129.html

Your Child

Worrisome Increase in Kidney Stones in Teens & Children

1:45

Typically, kidney stones occur in men over the age of 25, but new research shows that the annual incidence of kidney stones among children and teens has risen by 16 percent from 1997 to 2012.

Researchers analyzed data from South Carolina from 1997 to 2012 and were surprised to see that the largest increase was with teens (4.7 percent a year), females (3.7 percent a year) and blacks (nearly 3 percent a year).

During the study period, the risk of kidney stones doubled among children, and there was a 45 percent increase in the lifetime risk for women.

Teen girls had the highest rate of increase in kidney stones, and they were more common among females aged 10 to 24 than among males in the same age group. After age 25, kidney stones were more common in men, the study authors said.

"The emergence of kidney stones in children is particularly worrisome, because there is limited evidence on how to best treat children for this condition," said study leader Dr. Gregory Tasian, a pediatric urologist and epidemiologist at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

"The fact that stones were once rare and are now increasingly common could contribute to the inappropriate use of diagnostic tests such as CT scans for children with kidney stones, since health care providers historically have not been accustomed to evaluating and treating children with kidney stones," he explained in a hospital news release.

"These trends of increased frequency of kidney stones among adolescents, particularly females, are also concerning when you consider that kidney stones are associated with a higher risk of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular and bone disease, particularly among young women," Tasian added.

What causes kidney stones? According to the Mayo clinic, kidney stones do not have a single cause, although several factors can increase one’s risk.

Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid — than the fluid in your urine can dilute. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form.

Some of the risk factors include a family or personal history of kidney stones, dehydration, diets high in protein, sodium and sugar, obesity and other several other medical conditions.

Symptoms can include:

•       Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs

•       Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin

•       Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity

•       Pain on urination

•       Pink, red or brown urine

•       Cloudy or foul-smelling urine

•       Nausea and vomiting

•       Persistent need to urinate

•       Urinating more often than usual

•       Fever and chills if an infection is present

•       Urinating small amounts of urine

If your child or teen exhibits severe back or side pain, pain and nausea and vomiting, pain with fever and chills, blood in the urine or has difficulty passing urine, he or she should be seen immediately by a physician.

There may be a number of reasons for the rise in kidney stone rates, including not drinking enough water and poor eating habits, such as increased salt and decreased calcium intake, the researcher said.

The findings were published online in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Source: Robert Preidt, http://teens.webmd.com/news/20160115/rise-in-kidney-stones-in-teens-a-cause-for-concern-study

 

 

Your Child

Adult and Childhood ADHD Two Different Disorders?

1:45

A couple of recent studies are taking a new look at the differences in adult and childhood ADHD.

They suggest that adult ADHD is not just a continuation of childhood ADHD, but that the two are different disorders entirely.

In addition, the researchers say that adult-onset ADHD might actually be more common than childhood onset.

The two studies used similar methodology and showed fairly similar results.

The first study, conducted by a team at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, evaluated more than 5,000 individuals born in the city of Pelotas in 1993. Approximately 9 percent of them were diagnosed with childhood ADHD — a fairly average rate. Twelve percent of the subjects met criteria for ADHD in adulthood — significantly higher than the researchers expected — but there was very little overlap between the groups. In fact, only 12.6 percent of the adults with ADHD had shown diagnosable signs of the disorder in childhood.

The second study, which looked at 2,040 twins born in England and Wales from 1994-5, found that of 166 subjects who met the criteria for adult ADHD, more than half (67.5 percent) showed no symptoms of ADHD in childhood. Of the 247 individuals who had met the criteria for ADHD in childhood, less than 22 percent retained that diagnosis into adulthood.

These reports support findings from a third study from New Zealand, published in 2015. Researchers followed subjects from birth to age 38. Of the patients who showed signs of ADHD in adulthood in that study, 90 percent had demonstrated no signs of the disorder in childhood.

While the results from these studies suggests that the widely accepted definition of ADHD – a disorder that develops in childhood, is occasionally “outgrown” as the patient ages- may need to be reassessed.

However, not everyone is on board with the recent findings. Some experts suggest that the study’s authors may have simply missed symptoms of ADHD in childhood in cases where it didn’t seem to become apparent until adulthood.

“Because these concerns suggest that the UK, Brazil, and New Zealand studies may have underestimated the persistence of ADHD and overestimated the prevalence of adult-onset ADHD, it would be a mistake for practitioners to assume that most adults referred to them with ADHD symptoms will not have a history of ADHD in youth,” write Stephen Faraone, Ph.D., and Joseph Biederman, M.D., in an editorial cautioning the ADHD community to interpret the two most recent studies with a grain of salt. They called the findings “premature.”

In both of these studies and in previous research, adult ADHD has been linked to high levels of criminal behavior, substance abuse, traffic accidents and suicide attempts. These troubling correlations remained even after the authors adjusted for the existence of other psychiatric disorders — proving once again that whether it develops in childhood or adulthood, untreated ADHD is serious business.

Both of the studies challenge conventional beliefs that childhood onset ADHD is more likely to continue into adulthood. Many experts would like to see more research on this topic to verify these findings

The two studies were published in the July 2016 issue of JAMA Psychiatry.

Story source: Devon Frye, http://www.additudemag.com/adhdblogs/19/12040.html

Your Child

Young Girls Less Likely to See Women as “Really, Really Smart”

2:00

One of the surprise box office hits this year is “Hidden Figures.” It’s based on the true story of a team of female African-American mathematicians at NASA in the late 50s and early 60s that helped launch the first U.S. astronaut into space. The women were brilliant but faced enormous challenges for acceptance because of their race and gender.

According to a new study, you might could say that there are millions of "hidden figures" in who young girls and boys’ perceive as someone who is “really, really smart.”

Researchers wanted to try and figure out why women are underrepresented in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics, or STEM, fields. While most women make the decision to pursue these courses in high school or college, the scientists found that children develop a stereotype of which gender is naturally smarter early in life.

The study involved 400 children, aged 5 to 7 and included a story told by Lin Bian, a co-author and psychologist at the University of Illinois.

“There are lots of people at the place where I work, but there is one person who is really special. This person is really, really smart,” said Bian. “This person figures out how to do things quickly and comes up with answers much faster and better than anyone else. This person is really, really smart.”

She then showed them pictures of four adults—two men and two women—and asked them to guess which was the protagonist of the story. She also gave them two further tests: one in which they had to guess which adult in a pair was “really, really smart”, and another where they had to match attributes like “smart” or “nice” to pictures of unfamiliar men and women.

The results were revealing.  The 5 year-old boys and girls associated the “smart” person with their own gender. But among those aged 6 or 7, only the boys still held to that view. At an age when girls tend to outperform boys at school, and when children in general show large positive biases towards their own in-groups, the girls became less likely than boys to attribute brilliance to their own gender.

As the boys continued to believe in their own intelligence, the girls – on average – tended to see everyone on more equal terms.

Bian also found that the older girls were less interested in games that were meant for “really, really smart” children.

The stereotype that brilliance and genius are male traits is common among adults. In various surveys, men rate their intelligence more favorably than women, and in a recent study of biology undergraduates, men overrated the abilities of male students above equally talented and outspoken women.

Bian’s study suggests that the seeds of this bias are planted at a very early age. Even by the age of 6, boys and girls are already diverging in who they think is smart.

The findings could help illuminate the challenge schools face in combating gender stereotypes, even though girls often outperform boys in school. Girls drop out of high school at a lower rate than boys. Women are more likely than men to enroll in college, and they earn more college degrees each year than men.

Other games were played and social tests were given during the study with similar results. The 5 year-olds were equally interested in participating, but the 6 and 7 year-old girls were less interested in the ones that relied on “being smart.” Both genders were attracted to the games requiring persistence and hard work.

In today’s business and scientific world, more educators, policymakers and corporations are making an effort to include women in leadership roles, but breaking through the stereotypes developed at such a young age can hinder girls and women in those and other disciplines.

Children model what they see. If they are raised in an environment that diminishes young girls’ achievements but rewards young boys for the same achievements, it often sets up a life-long struggle for them to feel and accept their own self-value. 

Teachers also play an important role in encouraging all children to reach their highest achievement level.

Young girls, as well as young boys, should be recognized for their intelligence and encouraged to pursue science, technology, engineering and math studies – the rest of the world will benefit.

The research can't explain how these messages are getting to kids or how they could be changed, says Andrei Cimpian, a professor of psychology at New York University and an author of the study, He is planning a long-term study of young children that would measure environmental factors, including media exposure and parental beliefs. That would give a better idea of what factors predict the emergence of stereotypes, and what levers are available to change attitudes.

The study was published in the journal Science.

Story sources:  Ed Yong, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/01/six-year-old-girls-already-have-gendered-beliefs-about-intelligence/514340/

Katherine Hobson, http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/01/26/511801423/young-girls-are-less-apt-to-think-women-are-really-really-smart

Nick Anderson, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade-point/wp/2017/01/26/research-shows-young-girls-are-less-likely-to-think-of-women-as-really-really-smart/?utm_term=.fc30e9030500&wpisrc=nl_sb_smartbrief

 

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