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Your Child

Will 60% of U.S. Children be Obese by Age 35?

2:00

As many as six in ten U.S. children could be obese by the time they are 35 years old. That sobering news comes from a study conducted by "Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost-Effectiveness Study" (CHOICES).

The numbers are a result of data entered into a computer. The investigators first combined height and weight data from five studies involving about 41,500 children and adults. The computer then generated a representative sample of 1 million "virtual" children up to the age of 19, living in the year 2016. The model then predicted how obesity rates would unfold until all the virtual children turned 35.

The model indicated that being overweight or obese early in life bumped up the risk for being obese later in life. In addition, the more overweight or obese someone was as a child, the greater the person's chance of being obese by age 35.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), roughly 20 percent of American children between the ages of 6 and 19 years of age are currently obese. That reflects a tripling of the number since the 1970s.

The study’s lead author, Zachary Ward, a doctoral candidate in health policy with the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health's Center for Health Decision Science, in Boston, noted that the results were not unexpected.

"It should not be surprising that we are heading in this direction. We are already approaching this level of adult obesity for certain subgroups [and] areas of the country." Ward said.

Still, Ward expressed some surprise at how strongly being obese at a very young age predicted obesity decades down the road. 

"For example, we found that three out of four 2-year-olds with obesity will still have obesity at age 35," he said. "For 2-year-olds with severe obesity, that number is four out five."

Lona Sandon, an assistant professor of clinical nutrition at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, was also not surprised at the findings.

"Trends show obesity occurring earlier in adulthood, and [the] current level of childhood obesity suggests that the trend will continue," said Sandon, who was not involved with the analysis. 

Because "obesity is difficult to reverse at any age," she said, prevention is key. Parents should not rely solely on public school nutrition and activity programs to do the job.

Earlier studies have suggested that obesity in children may begin in the womb if the mother is obese when she becomes pregnant, and develops gestational diabetes. This combination can produce a large child at birth. Studies have shown that babies born with higher amounts of fat at birth tend to continue having more body fat in childhood and on into adulthood.

Experts recommend that overweight women that are considering becoming pregnant, first lose the extra weight and be tested for type2 diabetes. If they are found to have type2 diabetes before they're pregnant, they should be treated beforehand; this will help their pregnancy and prevent complications.

Sandon also notes that there are other things parents can do to help insure a healthier child. "Concerned parents can make efforts to prepare and provide healthier foods at home, plan regular scheduled mealtimes, limit screen time, encourage participation in sports, encourage participation in active leisure time activities instead of more sedentary activities and, most of all, set an example by being active, having a healthy relationship with their own food choices and having regular mealtimes as well."

The study by Ward and his colleagues appears in the November issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Story sources: Alan Mozes, https://www.webmd.com/children/news/20171129/60-percent-of-us-kids-could-be-obese-by-age-35#1

Lucilla Poston, Professor, https://www.news-medical.net/news/20170111/Childhood-obesity-starts-in-the-womb.aspx

 

 

Your Child

Putting the Thanks in Thanksgiving

2:00

Thanksgiving is traditionally a time when family and friends gather to share good food, stories and memories together. Many folks enjoy a game of touch football and the always-pleasant Macy’s day parade as well. Most of all, it’s a day of giving thanks for all the blessings and challenges we each face throughout the year- knowing we face them side-by-side.

For kids, the message of Thanksgiving may not have quite sunk in yet, but there are several ways you can help teach your children how Thanksgiving and gratitude go hand-in-hand.

Several experts offer these tips for putting the thanks in Thanksgiving:

Playing the gratitude game!   Kids love games and this is one that can make them think about the things they are thankful for and have fun at the same time. Lennay Chapman, author of "Secrets to a Rockin Life”, has created "The Gratitude Game."  It’s pretty simple and will keep the kids on their toes! The game needs ideally three or more players and one person to serve as a timekeeper. Have everyone sit in a circle with one person starting off saying, "I am grateful for [fill in the blank]." That person has five seconds to come up with something for which they are thankful, whether it be their favorite stuffed animal, food or activity. As soon as the first person finishes, the person to the left goes. "The key is to say what you are grateful for without repeating, and without pausing for more than five seconds," says Chapman.

Create a Thankfulness jar! Robert Nickell, a well known syndicated columnist for national newspapers, parenting magazines and family oriented websites as well as creator of Daddy & Company, suggests creating a “Thankfulness Jar” for the family.

Have the children decorate a jar or basket, placing a notepad and pen next to it. Leave the jar out the week before Thanksgiving and have family members and caregivers write down things for which they are thankful. They can be big things, or small little gestures. This gives people time to think about it and write heartfelt answers. During the Thanksgiving meal, have the children pull them out and read them during dinner.

“Thankful Turkey” decorations! Another creative idea Nickell shares are "Thankful Turkeys." "Draw the old-fashioned hand turkey or be more elaborate, but have children write something they are thankful for on each of the turkey's feathers," he suggests. They can be used as place cards or decorations on Thanksgiving Day.

Thankful Writing! Have each child write thank you notes to every family member who comes to share the meal with your family. In those thank you notes, have the children specifically focus on what it is about that family member that makes them so special.

It’s show time! What better day than Thanksgiving (with a captive audience) to put on a play or read poems? Encourage children to collaborate and put together a Thanksgiving show or write a Thanksgiving poem about thankfulness. Have them perform the show or read their poems after dinner.

Be an example! Another great way to teach children gratitude is to model thankfulness. Volunteer with your children at places where, not only can they help others, but see how fortunate they are.

Create a family, “giving fund” so that everyone chips in, and then uses the money to donate to a charity.

Children are often grateful, they just don’t have a name for the feeling they are experiencing.

These simple tips are fun ways to give gratitude a name and expression.

Happy Thanksgiving to you and your family!

Story source: Alaina Sullivan, https://www.care.com/c/stories/3726/8-tips-for-teaching-kids-to-be-thankful/

Your Child

Bowlegs and Knock-Knees in Kids

2:00

Parents may be concerned when they notice their toddler seems to be bowlegged or knock-kneed. Typically, there’s nothing to worry about, it’s just part of his or her growth development.

The medical term is genu valgum, but the condition is more commonly called bow-legged or knock-kneed. It usually becomes noticeable when a child is 2 to 3 years old, and it may increase in severity until about age 4. It usually self-corrects by the time a child is about 7 or 8 years old. But if the condition doesn’t appear until a child is 6 or older, it could be a sign that there is an underlying bone disease.

During early childhood, knock-knees actually help a child to maintain balance, particularly when the child begins to walk, or if the foot rolls inward or turns outward. When a child has knock-knees, both knees usually lean inward symmetrically. One knee, however, may "knock" less than the other or may even remain straight.

Sometimes, the condition will persist into the teen years. It’s also more common in girls, although boys can develop it too.

Knock knees are usually part of the normal growth and development of the lower extremities. In some cases, it may be a sign of an underlying bone disease, such as Osteomalacia or rickets.

Obesity can contribute to knock knees—or can cause walking problems that resemble, but aren’t actually, knock-knees. The condition can occasionally result from an injury to the growth area of the shinbone (tibia), which may result in just one knocked knee.

Typically, a child’s legs will straighten naturally by the teen years. Bracing, corrective shoes, and exercise are rarely helpful, and may hinder a child’s physical development and cause unnecessary emotional stress, when the child is very young. Rarely, bowlegs or knock-knees are the result of a disease. Arthritis, injury to the growth plate around the knee, infection, tumor, Blount’s disease (a growth disorder of the shinbone), and rickets all can cause changes in the curvature of the legs. 

There are signs to look for that may indicate that a child’s bowlegs or knock-knees are caused by a more serious medical problem:

·      The curvature is extreme.

·      Only one side is affected.

·      The bowlegs get worse after two years of age.

·      The knock-knees persist after seven years of age.

·      Your child is unusually short for his or her age.

·      There is pain in the knees or in the feet, hips or ankles.

·      Stiff joints.

If your child is experiencing any of these symptoms, your pediatrician should examine him or her.

The good news is that most cases of knock-knees or bowlegs will resolve before a child reaches adolescence. However, if it doesn’t and is left untreated, it can lead to further health problems with joints and muscles, including osteoporosis.

Treatment will depend on the cause and the severity. If there is an underlying disease present, medications and supplements may help resolve the condition. A physical therapist may be able to offer some simple exercises and stretches that help strengthen the muscles and realign the knees. Weight loss is recommended when obesity is a contributing factor. Extra weight puts additional strain on the legs and knees, which can cause knock-knees to worsen. Surgery is the last line of treatment but is typically only recommended in very severe cases.

Children’s health experts suggests that parents not panic if their little one has knock-knees, but that they keep an eye on the condition and see if it goes away as the child gets older. At times, children may not have straight lower legs until they are nine or ten years old.

Story sources: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/orthopedic/Pages/Bowlegs-and-Knock-Knees.aspx

Jenna Fletcher, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319894.php

 

 

Your Child

Hand Sanitizers Poisoning Young Children

2:00

Poison control centers across America have been seeing an increase in calls about children who are getting very sick from drinking hand sanitizers. Poison control officials are warning parents and school officials about this dangerous trend involving small children, basically getting drunk, on hand sanitizer.

“A doctor called us about a week and a half ago about two cases he saw the same day at the ER,” says Gaylord Lopez, PharmD, director of the Georgia Poison Center. “It was a 5- and a 6-year-old.”

The first patient, a 6-year-old girl, was picked up after school stumbling and slurring her words. She’d also fallen and hit her head. Her mother drove her straight to the ER, where doctors found out she’d eaten two to three squirts of strawberry-scented hand sanitizer from a big container sitting on her teacher’s desk.

Her blood alcohol level was 1.79, almost twice what would be considered the legal limit in an adult.

The second case was a 5-year-old boy, who came in with a blood alcohol level of 2.0. The culprit was hand sanitizer.

Lopez checked the national data and saw these cases were part of an unrecognized trend. In 2010, U.S. poison centers got more than 3,600 calls about kids under age 12 eating hand sanitizers. By 2013, that number had swelled to more than 16,000 calls.

“That’s a 400 percent increase,” Lopez says. “I was surprised more than anyone.”

Many of the hand sanitizer bottles come in bright colors and the sanitizer itself smells like bubble gum and other tasty treats such as lemonade and vanilla. All aromas a child might mistake for the real thing.

The big problem with these products are that they can be anywhere from 40 to 95 percent alcohol.

Drinking even just little bit can make kids intoxicated. It’s like drinking a shot or two of hard liquor.

“You and I don’t have any problem sending our kids with hand sanitizer in their backpacks. But what if I told you that was twice as potent as vodka. That’s like a parent sending a bottle of whiskey or rum to school,” Lopez says.

Alcohol poisoning can cause a child’s heart rate, blood pressure and breathing to slow. They may stagger, seem sleepy and vomit. Their blood sugar can drop rapidly leading to seizures and coma.

Lopez says hand sanitizers are often included in the list of school supplies parents should send to school. He says many adults he’s talked to don’t realize that hand sanitizers contain so much alcohol, or they don’t realize that it’s the kind of alcohol that can cause intoxication.

“I wanted to get the word out. Parents should be aware. Teachers should be aware.”

If you have hand sanitizer at home, keep it out of the reach of young children. If you send hand sanitizer with your child to school- especially during the flu and cold season- use the wipes instead.

You can learn more about hand sanitizer poisoning by calling the American Association of Poison Control Center for free advice at 1-800-222-1222.

If you suspect your child may have ingested sanitizer and is showing any of the above symptoms, take your child to the hospital immediately.

Source: Brenda Goodman, MA, http://www.webmd.com/children/news/20150915/hand-sanitizers-poisoning-kids

Your Child

Checking Out Your Kid’s Apps

2:30

Apps are today’s equivalent to yesterday’s skates, cabbage patch dolls, transformers, NERF balls and video games.   Every kid wants one and there are plenty to go around.

A recent article on CNN.com looked at the dilemma many parents face when their little one wants a popular app downloaded onto their phone. A couple’s 9-year-old daughter wanted the app, Musical.ly. Her classmates were using it and sharing content and she wanted to be able to join in on the fun. It basically enables you to share your own music videos to popular songs. 

While dad, David G. Allan, didn’t say yes or no right away, he did tell her he would do some research and let her know his and his wife’s decision.

It’s a good thing he decided to check it out.

His online research provided commentary and articles about the app plus an opportunity to sign up and give it a try.

After downloading the app and examining the content, he and his wife chose to veto the request.

In a Facebook post, he laid out his 3 reasons why.

“I found sexual content in user profiles and videos, without trying very hard. There was easy, direct exposure to strangers. Adult strangers. And I found no way to filter out those first two items, even with privacy settings on. The privacy settings seemed to only reduce other risks.”

The app’s terms and conditions says signup requires users to be age 13 and older, but user age is self-reported and something parents can restrict only for app downloads at the device level.

When a website says that a child must be 13 years or older to use an app, that’s just a legal way to protect themselves; it is not necessarily because they want to protect your child.

A 1998 law titled the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act details the responsibilities of developers to protect online privacy and safety of kids under age 13. Website operators reduce their legal culpability by putting that age cutoff in their terms and conditions.

Over breakfast the next morning, Allan told his daughter that she would not be allowed to download the app and the reasons why. “I explained to her that an important part of my job as a parent is to do everything I can to keep her safe. And because she trusts that I've got her back in all things, my permission to use social media brings with it the assumption that it is a safe thing for her to do.”

Turns out that some of his daughter’s friends’ parents read his post and deleted the app from their child’s phone. It wasn’t long before his 9-year-old and her classmates were on to the next app. He checked that one out as well and allowed her to get it.

A good point made in the article is, “We will all have different ideas of what's appropriate, but it's the conversation and deliberation that's important. And the flipside of social media is that it gives us a great forum with which to engage in it.”

It’s not easy being a parent. There are times when you have to say no and stick to it, but giving the no a reason, puts it in context for a child. They may not like it, but at least they no why you’ve made that choice.

Apps are not going away and younger and younger children are finding them and sharing them. It’s imperative that parents not only know what apps their child is using, but that they do the research on these products. It’s one way to help keep your child a little safer when the digital world offers something that is simply not appropriate.

Story source: David G. Allan, http://www.cnn.com/2017/11/10/health/screen-decisions-go-ask-your-dad/index.html

 

Your Child

Flu Shot Cuts Kids’ Risk for Hospital Visit

2:00

Getting your child vaccinated against the flu could substantially cut his or her chances of ending up in the hospital with a flu-related illness, according to a new study.

Canadian researchers analyzed the medical records of nearly 10,000 children, ages 6 months to under 5 years, over the four flu seasons between 2010 and 2014.

The results of the study showed that children vaccinated against the flu, ages 2 to 4 years, had a 67 percent reduced risk of hospitalization due to the flu. Children 6 months to 23 months had a 48 percent reduced risk.

Even children with only a partial vaccination (one dose of flu vaccine during their first flu season) still had a lower risk of flu-related hospitalization.

"Influenza can cause serious illness, especially in young children, but there hasn't been a lot of research that has examined the magnitude of the influenza vaccine's effectiveness at preventing kids from getting really sick and being hospitalized," said study senior author Jeff Kwong, a scientist at Public Health Ontario.

"This research paper helps fill that gap by showing how effective the influenza vaccine can be at protecting young kids against serious complications from influenza infections," Kwong said in an agency news release.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that everyone 6 months of age and older get a seasonal flu vaccine.

Children, particularly younger than 5 years old, are at a higher risk for serious flu-related complications, the CDC warns.

The flu season in the U.S., on an average, begins in October and is in high gear during December and January; peaking in February. It can last as late as May.

The CDC has issued a few changes in the 2017-2018 flu-season:

  • The recommendation to not use the nasal spray flu vaccine (LAIV) was renewed for the 2017-2018 season. Only injectable flu shots are recommended for use again this season.
  • Flu vaccines have been updated to better match circulating viruses (the influenza A(H1N1) component was updated). Women may receive any licensed, recommended, and age-appropriate flu vaccine.
  • The age recommendation for “Flulaval Quadrivalent” has been changed from 3 years old and older to 6 months and older to be consistent with FDA-approved labeling.

Other changes in the 2017-2018 flu-season recommendations and vaccines can be found at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season-2017-2018.htm.

Some children 6 months through 8 years of age will require two doses of flu vaccine for adequate protection from flu. Children in this age group who are getting vaccinated for the first time will need two doses of flu vaccine, spaced at least 28 days apart. Children who have only received one dose in their lifetime also need two doses. Your child’s doctor or other health care professional can tell you if your child needs two doses of flu vaccine.

To protect children younger than 6 months old from getting the flu, the people around them should be vaccinated. Also, studies have shown that flu vaccination of the mother during pregnancy can protect the baby after birth from flu infection for several months.

Story sources: Robert Preidt, https://consumer.healthday.com/infectious-disease-information-21/flu-news-314/flu-shot-could-help-your-kid-avoid-hospital-728509.html

https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/flu-season-2017-2018.htm

 

Your Child

Recall: CLIF Bars, Due to Possible Nut Allergens

2:00

If your child has a nut allergy, and eats CLIF bars, they could accidently ingest one of an assortment of nuts that may have slipped through the manufacturing process.

CLIF Bar and Company is voluntarily recalling 12 of its products that are primarily marketed for children because they may contain several nut allergens.

The bars might contain peanuts, walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, cashews, Brazil nuts, macadamia nuts, pecans and coconut.

As you know, serious or life-threatening allergic reactions are possible for those with severe allergy to nuts or peanuts. As this time, there have been no reports of illness from this recall.

The bars were sold online and at retail stores throughout the United States. The affected products can be identified by the “Best By” date code found on the back of the individual packaging. You can check the lot codes below:

  • CLIF BUILDER'S 18-count Variety Pack Chocolate Peanut Butter and Chocolate Mint: Lot Code FROM: 24MAR16M; Lot Code TO: 08FEB18M
  • CLIF Kid Zbar Protein 30-count Variety Pack -- Lot Code FROM: 31MAY16M; Lot Code TO: 15OCT17M
  • CLIF BUILDER'S Chocolate Mint 12-count -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3
  • CLIF BUILDER'S Chocolate Mint 6-pack -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3 
  • CLIF BUILDER'S Chocolate Mint 7-pack -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3 
  • CLIF BUILDER'S Snack Size Chocolate Mint 200-count -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3 
  • CLIF Kid Zbar Protein Chocolate Chip 10-pack -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3 
  • CLIF Kid Zbar Protein Chocolate Chip 150-count -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3 
  • CLIF Kid Zbar Protein Chocolate Chip 5-pack -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3 
  • CLIF Kid Zbar Protein Chocolate Mint 10-pack -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3 
  • CLIF Kid Zbar Protein Chocolate Mint 150-count -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3 
  • CLIF Kid Zbar Protein Chocolate Mint 5-pack -- Lot Code FROM: 05APR16M3; Lot Code TO: 23APR18M3 

All other CLIF Bar and Company products are not affected by this recall.

The company is asking people to return the products to where they bought them for a refund or exchange. People with questions can call 866-526-1970 or visit the company’s website here.

Story source: Brunilda Nazario, MD http://www.webmd.com/diet/news/20170706/clif-bars-recall

http://www.clifbar.com/text/june-2017-recall

Your Child

Young Kids Still Being Injured or Killed in ATVs Accidents

2:30

Despite safety warnings from pediatricians and child health experts, children under 16 are still driving or riding as passengers on all-terrain vehicles.  The number of young kids being injured or killed in ATV accidents has not changed much in recent years, according to a new study.

Since 2000, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that ATV use be restricted to youth aged 16 years and older who wear helmets, don’t take passengers and steer clear of roads.

“Too many young children are driving these machines - equivalent to a motorcycle in many ways,” said senior study author Dr. William Hennrikus, medical director of the Pediatric Bone and Joint Clinic at Penn State College of Medicine in Hershey, Pennsylvania. 

“Children should not drive an ATV until they’re over 16, just like driving a motorcycle,” Hennrikus said by email to Reuters. “Helmets should always be worn, just like a motorcycle.”

For the study, researchers examined data on 1,912 patients under age 18 who were injured while using an ATV and treated at trauma centers in Pennsylvania from 2004 to 2014. 

During this period, 28 children died in ATV crashes, a mortality rate of roughly one per every 100,000 kids in the population, researchers calculated.

Fewer than half of the children were wearing helmets and a street or roadway was were 15% of the crashes happened. Rural areas tend to have more ATV crashes.

Being a passenger or being pulled by the ATV was a factor in almost one in four injuries, the study also found. 

Half of the kids involved in ATV crashes were 14 or younger, and about 6 percent were no more than 5 years old. 

Boys accounted for three in every four patients.

Limitations of the study include the possibility that researchers underestimated injuries and deaths because they only looked at trauma center patients, not children who were treated elsewhere or died before they ever reached a trauma center.

Experts agree that age isn’t the only factor parents should consider when letting their child drive an ATV.

“Parents need to think not just about their child’s size, but also their ability to think, to react to emergency situations and to maintain safe, cautious control of a very powerful vehicle,” said David Schwebel, a sports injury researcher at the University of Alabama at Birmingham who wasn’t involved in the study.

All across the country children are riding on or driving ATVs with sometimes-serious consequences. Just in the past few months a 12-year old boy from New York died from injuries in an ATV crash. A 15-year old boy in Illinois was killed and his passenger, his 12-year old sister, was seriously injured when he lost control of the ATV. A 14-year old boy was killed in New Jersey after losing control and crashing his ATV into another 14-year olds ATV; 2 other children were seriously injured from that crash. None of the children were wearing helmets or seatbelts. 

“Helmets absolutely have to be used for any ride, even short, apparently safe ones,” Schwebel said by email. “Passengers should never ride on ATVs unless the ATV is designed for more than one person.”

While ATVs can be dangerous for adults, they pose a much higher risk for children.

“Children are not developmentally capable of operating these heavy, complex machines,” Sandra Hassink, president of the AAP, said. “The American Academy of Pediatrics warns all parents that no child under the age of 16 should drive or ride an ATV.”

Story source: Lisa Rapaport, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-children-atv-injuries-idUSKBN1A422F

https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/pages/AAPCFAATVs.aspx

 

Your Child

Botox Injections for Young Migraine Sufferers?

1:45

Botox injections are typically thought of as beauty enhancers for adult men and women, but a small study in California, suggests that the injections may also help children find relief from migraines. 

The new findings are based on testing among just nine children, aged 8 to 17. Currently, Botox is only approved as an adult migraine treatment and research has shown that for some people, it’s been effective.

The new study may provide hope for a young migraine sufferer looking for an alternative treatment, since the one approved preventative medication, topiramate, is only available to adolescent patients.

"When children and teens have migraine pain, it can severely affect their lives and ability to function," said study author Dr. Shalini Shah, chief of the division of pain medicine at the University of California, Irvine, 

"They miss school, their grades suffer and they are left behind, often unable to reach their full potential," she added in an American Society of Anesthesiologists' news release. "Clearly, there is a need for an alternative treatment for those who haven't found relief.”

After the treatments with Botox, Shah noted, "we saw improvement in functional aspects in all of the children and teens. In fact, one patient was hospitalized monthly for her migraine pain prior to Botox treatment and was expected to be held back in school. After treatment, she only has one or two migraines a year, and is excelling in college."

Researchers said that before treatment, the participating patients experienced migraines between roughly eight and 30 times per month.

The kids and teens were given Botox shots to the front and back of the head and the neck every 12 weeks for five years. Once treated, the study volunteers had migraines between two and 10 times a month.

Researchers said the patients experienced less pain and the duration of the migraine attacks decreased. No severe side effects were reported and another study is already being launched.

Shah recently presented the findings at a meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists in Boston. Findings presented at meetings are typically viewed as preliminary if they haven't been published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Story source: Alan Mozes, https://consumer.healthday.com/kids-health-information-23/adolescents-and-teen-health-news-719/botox-may-offer-new-hope-for-young-migraine-sufferers-727788.html

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When should you keep your child home from school?

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