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Your Baby

High-Sugar Intake During Mom’s Pregnancy May Double Child’s Risk of Asthma

2:00

It’s no secret that moms-to-be often develop a sweet tooth during pregnancy, but new information suggests high-sugar foods and drinks may double their child’s risk for developing asthma and allergies later in life.

Researchers from Queen Mary University of London used data gathered from nearly 9,000 mother-child pairs in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an ongoing research project that tracks the health of families with children born between April 1, 1991, and December 31, 1992.

During the study, the participating pregnant women were asked about their weekly intake of certain foods and specific food items including sugar, coffee and tea. Their responses were used to calculate their intake of added sugar.

The researchers only saw weak evidence to suggest a link between women’s added sugar intake and their children’s chances of developing asthma overall. But when they looked specifically at allergic asthma—in which an asthma diagnosis is accompanied by a positive skin test for allergens—the link was much stronger. Children whose moms were in the top fifth for added sugar during pregnancy were twice as likely to have allergic asthma when compared to children whose moms were in the bottom fifth.

Children of mothers with the high-sugar diets were 38% more likely to test positive for an allergen and 73% more likely to test positive for more than one allergen, compared to those kids whose moms stayed away from added sugar.

"The dramatic 'epidemic' of asthma and allergies in the West in the last 50 years is still largely unexplained -- one potential culprit is a change in diet," said Annabelle Bedard, lead author and a postdoctoral fellow at Queen Mary's Centre for Primary Care and Public Health Blizard Institute. "Intake of free sugar and high fructose corn syrup has increased substantially over this period."

As with most studies, a cause and effect was not established, only an association. The study’s authors believe that the association is strong enough to warrant further investigation.

Lead researcher Professor Seif Shaheen  said: "We cannot say on the basis of these observations that a high intake of sugar by mothers in pregnancy is definitely causing allergy and allergic asthma in their offspring.

"However, given the extremely high consumption of sugar in the West, we will certainly be investigating this hypothesis further with some urgency.”

There are many health reasons why pregnant women should limit their intake of high-calorie and sugary foods and drinks. This research suggests that it may be prudent for the health of their unborn child as well.

Story sources: Susan Scutti, http://edition.cnn.com/2017/07/05/health/sugar-pregnancy-child-allergy-asthma-study/index.html

 Henry Bodkin, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/07/06/high-sugar-intake-pregnancy-linked-double-risk-child-asthma/

Your Baby

Updated Safety Guidelines for Infant Sleeping

2:00

Elaborate beddings and plush accessories may look stylish and cute in a newborn nursery however, pediatricians know that these things should never be part of a baby’s sleeping environment. Getting new parents to understand why this type of bedding can be dangerous for babies is one of the reasons that the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has updated and issued new safety guidelines.

Nineteen evidence-based recommendations aimed at protecting infants up to 1 year of age are featured in SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Updated 2016 Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment, an AAP policy statement and technical report from the Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

Safe sleep recommendations include placing infants on their backs to sleep; using a firm sleep surface; room sharing without bed sharing; avoiding exposure to smoke, alcohol and illicit drugs; breastfeeding; routine immunization; and using a pacifier.

Every year, about 3,500 infants die from sleep-related deaths. Soon after the “Back to Sleep” campaign debuted in 1994, the SIDS rate declined, but it has leveled off in recent years. Ninety percent of cases occur before an infant turns 6 months of age, with peak incidence between 1 and 4 months.

Most parents know the importance of placing babies on their backs to sleep; the focus now is on the total sleep environment.

“I think the back-to-sleep message has gotten out loud and clear,” said Rachel Y. Moon, M.D., FAAP, lead author of the statements and chair of the task force. “When you ask parents, almost every parent knows — whether they are doing it or not is a different thing. We have been less successful at getting people to not sleep with their babies … and much less successful in getting the soft bedding away from babies.”

The dangers of bed-sharing and soft bedding are two problems that Moon says are often misunderstood.

“For the soft bedding, everybody thinks if it’s soft, then it can’t hurt the baby. But soft bedding is actually really a problem because it’s so soft they sink into it. People will often use pillows to ‘cushion’ the babies, and babies sink into them. …That’s very dangerous.”

It’s similar with bed-sharing, she said. “Some parents also think if baby is right next to them, they can tell if there is a problem … and protect the baby,” Moon noted.

A simple ABC formula can help remind new parents and caregivers of safe sleeping actions.

Michael H. Goldstein, M.D., FAAP, a neonatologist and task force member, lays out the “ABCs”:

 A for the baby sleeping alone

for back sleeping

C for sleeping in an uncluttered crib (or play-yard or bassinet)

“Outside of these, one of the biggest things I would really like to see people take away from the updated recommendations is that no matter what, babies should never sleep on a couch, especially with another person,” Dr. Goldstein said. Babies can get wedged between the adult and the cushions.

Other messages in the guidelines deal with sleeping with an infant, swaddling, breastfeeding and pacifiers.

Breastfeeding, along with the use of a pacifier after breastfeeding is established, also is a key recommendation. “We don’t know if people realize that (by breastfeeding) you reduce the risk of SIDS about 50%,” Dr. Goldstein said.

Parents also are advised to be vigilant about environments out of the home. A study in the November issue of Pediatrics found out-of-home settings are more likely to have certain risk factors for sleep-related deaths, including level placement for sleep and location in a stroller or car seat instead of a crib or bassinet

One of the most important milestones for parents and caregivers is when baby sleeps through the night However, it’s normal and appropriate for newborns to wake up a couple of times during the night, especially if breastfeeding, said Dr. Goldstein. Babies will eventually sleep through the night, but not till their little bodies are ready.

Below are the 2016 infant sleep recommendations for parents, caregivers, researchers, pediatricians and media outlets:

1. Place infants on their back to sleep for every sleep period until they are 1 year old. This position does not increase the risk of choking and aspiration.

2. Use a firm sleep surface.

3. Breastfeeding is recommended.

4. Infants should sleep in the parents’ room, close to the parents’ bed but on a separate surface designed for infants, ideally for the first year, but at least for the first six months.

5. Keep soft objects and loose bedding out of the infant’s sleep area.

6. Consider offering a pacifier at naptime and bedtime.

7. Avoid smoke exposures during pregnancy and after birth.

8. Avoid alcohol and illicit drug use during pregnancy and after birth.

9. Avoid overheating and head covering in infants.

10. Pregnant women should obtain regular prenatal care.

11. Infants should be immunized according to the recommended schedule.

12. Avoid using commercial devices that are inconsistent with safe sleep recommendations, such as wedges and positioners.

13. Don’t use home cardiorespiratory monitors as a strategy to reduce SIDS risk. 

14. Supervised tummy time while the infant is awake can help development and minimize positional Plagiocephal (flat head syndrome).

15. There is no evidence to recommend swaddling to reduce the risk of SIDS.

16. Health care professionals and staff in newborn nurseries and neonatal intensive care units as well as child-care providers should endorse and model recommendations to reduce SIDS risk.

17. Media and manufacturers should follow safe sleep guidelines in messaging and advertising.

18. Continue the Safe to Sleep campaign, focusing on ways to further reduce sleep-related deaths.

19. Research and surveillance should continue on all risk factors.

Parents and caregivers can find more information about the “Safe to Sleep” program at: http://www.healthychildcare.org/pdf/sidsparentsafesleep.pdf

Story source: Alyson Sulaski Wyckoff, http://www.aappublications.org/news/2016/10/24/SIDS102416

Your Baby

High Lead Levels in Baby Bracelet

2:00

After an infant girl in Connecticut developed lead poisoning, the cause was found to be a bracelet made with lead beads. Doctors discovered that the 9-month-old had abnormally high blood lead levels during a routine checkup.

Her blood lead level was 41 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dL); anything over 5 ug/dL is considered abnormal, according to a recent report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Health investigators visited the infant’s home to try and determine where the lead originated. They found lead based paint on windows in the home; however, the child would not have been able to reach the windows. There were also 3 siblings in the house between 3-5 years old whose lead levels tests came back normal.

Investigators also found a homemade bracelet that the infant was given to chew on to relieve teething pain. The beads on the bracelet contained extremely high levels of lead; 17,000 parts per million (ppm). The amount of lead that's considered safe for children's products is 90 ppm or 100 ppm, depending on the type of product, according to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).

Investigators were unable to track down the manufacturer of the beads in the Connecticut case or the bracelet maker, according to the report.

In 2003 and 2006, there were several cases of severe lead poisoning and death linked to lead-containing jewelry and charms marketed to children, the report said. After these instances, the CPSC set limits on the amount of lead allowed in products marketed to kids, and each year, there are recalls of children's jewelry that exceed those limits. However, the limits do not apply to products that aren't intended for use by children, the report noted.

There's no safe amount of lead exposure for children, according to the CDC, and the toxic heavy metal can affect nearly every part of the body. In many cases, lead exposure can occur with no obvious symptoms. Symptoms of severe lead poisoning can include confusion, seizures, coma and death.

Lead in the body is distributed to the brain, liver, kidney and bones. It is stored in the teeth and bones, where it accumulates over time.

For severe cases of lead poisonings, doctors will sometimes recommend Chelation therapy or EDTA chelation therapy.

There are safe non-toxic ways to treat teething pain in infants. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) suggests using a chilled teething ring or “gently rubbing or massaging the gums with one of your fingers.”[3] However, there are safety concerns about plastic teething rings.  A 2015 study found chemicals that can affect the child’s hormones (also called endocrine-disrupting chemicals, or EDCs) in several types of plastic baby “teethers..”For this reason, parents may want to avoid using teethers made of any kind of plastic. While there are several non-plastic alternatives on the market which claim to be safe, some of these products may not have been adequately tested. In addition, some teething products could break or leak, presenting other safety concerns.

Safe ways to help your infant through the teething period include gum massage, a chilled spoon from the refrigerator (not the freezer!) to suck on, a chilled wet washcloth dipped in water, breast milk or chamomile tea to chew on, or chilled foods such as applesauce or yogurt to soothe pain.

Talk to your pediatrician first before applying any over-the-counter products for teething. Never put Lidocaine on your child’s gums.

In 2016, the FDA urged parents to avoid homeopathic teething rings that contain Belladonna. Belladonna comes from the deadly nightshade plant and can be poisonous.

The bottom line on easing teething pain in infants is to talk with your pediatrician about ways to help your little one can get through this sometimes challenging time.

Story sources: Sara G. Miller, https://www.livescience.com/60287-teething-bracelet-causes-lead-poisoning.html

 

 

 

Your Baby

Homemade or Commercial Baby Food- Which is Best?

1:45

A new study from the U.K. looked at homemade baby food versus commercial baby food bought in grocery stores. They both come up winners in some categories and losers in others.

The researchers wanted to assess how well homemade and commercially available readymade meals designed for infants and young children met age specific national dietary recommendations.

Once thought to be the ideal baby food, homemade meals turned out to be higher in calories and fat and more time-consuming to prepare, but less expensive and higher in nutrients and variety. Commercial baby food came in more convenient, lower in calories, total fats and salt but was more expensive and lacked variety. Sugar content was about the same in both foods.

Each option had upsides and downsides. For example, home-cooked food had higher nutritional content, but 50% of homemade meals also exceed calorie recommendations, and 37% exceeded the recommendations for calories from fat, reported a research team led by Sharon Carstairs, a PhD student at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland.

Only 7% of the commercial baby food evaluated exceeded calorie recommendations, and less than 1% exceeded recommendations for calories from fat, Carstairs and colleagues reported in Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Researchers compared the store-bought meals with 408 recipes for home-cooked infant meals obtained from best-selling published cookbooks. The investigators entered the recipe ingredients into dietary analysis software to calculate the nutritional composition of the recipes per 100 grams.

A chief limitation of the study was that it only analyzed the recipes for homemade meals and did not take into account how these meals might be prepared in "real life."

"Parents may use cookbooks prescriptively or only as guidance, and thus the nutritional content of home-cooked recipes can vary greatly, and this can be augmented further by natural variations in the nutritional composition of raw ingredients," Carstairs and colleagues noted.

In addition, "the authors may have overestimated the values for salt within home-cooked recipes as it was often cited as optional; these results should thus be considered with caution."

The study reassures parents that it is okay to give homemade food to babies being weaned from breast milk or formula, Lauri Wright, PhD, of the University of South Florida College of Public Health and a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, told MedPage Today.

"This is an important study, because in the United States parents think they have to do the commercial foods. Parents are afraid their child will miss out on nutrients if they don't give the specialized baby food."

The greater variety offered by homemade food may result in healthier taste preferences later in life, Wright added. "We used to think that taste preference developed at age 4 or 5, but we now know that taste preferences develop with the introduction of these first solid foods."

The bottom line from this study is that both types of baby food are acceptable; each comes with its own pros and cons. Just like with any other meal, how your homemade baby food is prepared is the key to whether it’s going to be healthy or not for baby. Understanding the guidelines for nourishing infant food and knowing the nutritional values of the foods you use, can help you prepare a wholesome meal for baby. Commercial baby foods also offer convenience and lower calories and fats. A mix of both will probably suit most families very well.

Story source: Medpage Today staff, http://www.medpagetoday.com/pediatrics/generalpediatrics/59228

 

 

Your Baby

Teething May Make Your Baby Fussy, But Not Sick

2:00

Parents sometimes have trouble distinguishing between whether their cranky baby is actually ill or is just getting his or her first teeth. Because a baby’s gums may be tender and swollen as their teeth come in, a slight rise in temperature can occur.  Other changes may happen as well such as fussiness and increased drooling. All- in –all, babies can be pretty miserable till those first teeth break through.

That said, teething does not cause a full-fledged fever above 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit or any other signs of illness according to a new review led by Dr. Michele Bolan, of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Certain symptoms can be confusing for parents says Dr. Minu George, interim chief of general pediatrics at Cohen Children's Medical Center, in New Hyde Park, N.Y.

"I get questions about this on a daily basis," said George, who was not involved in the study.

When a baby’s temperature reaches 100.4 degrees F or higher, it becomes an actual fever, not just a slight increase in temperature.

"Fevers are not a bad thing," she pointed out. "They're part of the body's response to infection." But, George added, parents should be aware that a fever is likely related to an illness.

Of course, new parents are going to be somewhat edgy when it comes to caring for their infant. It’s a new world of responsibility that can seem overwhelming at times. 

Pediatricians and family doctors regularly answer questions about this topic with an explanation of how a typical teething experience presents.

Over the ages, other symptoms have been linked to teething that should never apply. They include sores or blisters around the mouth, appetite loss and diarrhea that does not go away quickly. Any of these symptoms warrant a call to your pediatrician.

Babies differ in age as to when their teeth begin to come in.  Typically, the fist tooth begins to erupt around 6 months of age. It can also be as early as 3 months and as late as 1 year of age. There really isn’t a set age for teething to begin, just an average.

Baby’s teeth usually erupt through the gums in a certain order:

·      The two bottom front teeth (central incisors)

·      The four upper front teeth (central and lateral incisors)

·      The two lower lateral incisors

·      The first molars

·      The four canines (located on either side next to the upper and lower lateral incisors)

·      The remaining molars on either side of the existing line of teeth

By age 3, most children have all 20 of their primary teeth.

As for helping babies get through the misery of teething, George advised against medication, including topical gels and products that are labeled "natural" or "homeopathic."

Instead, she said, babies can find relief by chewing on a cooled teething ring or wet washcloth, or eating cool foods.

The analysis was published in the February online edition of the journal Pediatrics.

Sources: Amy Norton, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/news/20160218/teething-makes-babies-cranky-but-not-sick-review

http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/tc/teething-topic-overview

Your Baby

Should Newborns Sleep in Yours or Their Own Room?

2:00

It’s an age-old question, should your newborn sleep in his or her own bed in the parents’ bedroom for a while or start their sleeping habits in their own room?

A new study suggests infants benefit from sleeping in their own room, but the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) says the dangers may offset the benefit.

Recent research from a hospital in Philadelphia says babies go to sleep earlier, take less time to fall asleep, get more total sleep over the course of 24 hours, and spend more time asleep at night when they don’t share a bedroom with their parents. Parents also report that they get more rest as well.

“There are a number of possible reasons that babies sleep better in their own room,” said lead study author Jodi Mindell, associate director of the Sleep Center at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. 

“One main reason is that they are more likely to self-soothe to sleep,” Mindell said by email.

During the study, researchers found that parents who put babies to sleep in a separate room were less likely to feed infants to help them fall asleep at bedtime or when they awoke during the night.

When babies had their own rooms, parents also perceived bedtime to be less difficult.

The study focused on infants 6 to 12 months old. Researchers examined data from a questionnaire completed by parents of 6,236 infants in the U.S. and 3,798 babies in an international sample from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Great Britain and New Zealand. All participants were users of a publicly available smartphone app for baby sleep. The researchers noted that because of the use of the smartphone app, results might not be the same for a larger population of households.

The AAP recommends that newborns sleep in their own bed in their parents’ bedroom till the infant is at least 6 months of age to minimize the risk of sleep-related death. Ideally, babies should stay in their parents’ rooms at night for a full year, AAP advised 

The reason for the AAP recommendation is because babies sleeping in the same room as parents, but not the same bed, may have a lower risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

The safest spot for infant sleep is on a firm surface such as a crib or bassinet without any soft bedding, bumpers or pillows, the guidelines stressed. 

“Pediatric providers have been struggling with what to tell parents since the release of the AAP recommendations,” Mindell said. “Once a baby is past the risk of SIDS, by 6 months of age, parents need to decide what works best for them and their family, which enables everyone in the family to get the sleep they need.”

SIDS deaths occur most often from birth to six months but can also happen in older babies that were the focus on the study, said Dr. Lori Feldman-Winter, a coauthor of the AAP guidelines and pediatrics researcher at Cooper Medical School of Rowan University in Camden, New Jersey. 

“If the only goal is to increase sleep, then the results may be compelling,” Feldman-Winter said in an email to Reuters Health. “However, since we don’t know the causes of SIDS and evidence supports room sharing as a method to decrease SIDS, giving up some sleep may be worth it.”

The study was published online in the journal Sleep Medicine.

Story source: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-sleep-infants-location/parents-find-older-babies-sleep-better-in-their-own-room-idUSKCN1BC5QI

 

Your Baby

Alert! 180,000 Baby Pacifiers Recalled Due to Choking Hazard

1:30

Munchkin is recalling their Lightweight Pacifiers and Clips. The clip cover can detach from the pacifier’s clip, posing a choking hazard for young children.

his recall involves Munchkin’s Latch lightweight pacifiers and clips sold as a set. The pacifiers were sold in five styles: designer, rattle and heartbeat clips with 0m+ natural shape pacifiers, and designer and rattle clips with 6m+ orthodontic pacifiers. The designer pacifiers and clips 0m+ and 6m+ are in three color patterns: blue and white strips, orange and with white polka dots and pink with white polka dots. The rattle pacifiers and clips 0m+ and 6m+ are green with beads in the pacifier cover to make a rattle sound and have a polka dot strap. The heartbeat pacifiers and clips have a red, heart-shaped pacifier cover and red and white polka dots on the strap.

About 180,000 of the pacifier and clip sets have been sold. They were available from Babies R Us, Target, Wal-Mart and other mass merchandisers, juvenile product, baby boutique and discount stores nationwide and online at amazon.com, munchkin.com and other website from March 2014 through March 2016 for between $11 and $15.

The firm has received 10 reports (5 in the U.S. and 5 in Canada) of the clip cover detaching from the pacifier clip. No injuries have been reported. 

Consumers should immediately take the clip away from young children and contact Munchkin for a free replacement Lightweight Pacifier pack with two pacifiers or a full refund.

There is a toll-free consumer hotline available for more information at 877-242-3134 from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. PT Monday through Friday or online at www.munchkin.com, click on Help at the bottom of the page and then Recalls for more information.

Story source: http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Recalls/2016/Munchkin-Recalls-Latch-Lightweight-P...

Your Baby

Eating During Labor May Speed Up Delivery

1:45

In many hospitals, when a woman is in labor, all she is allowed to eat are a few ice chips. That rule may need updating, according to a new study that finds women who were allowed to eat before delivery had a slightly shorter labor than those who were restricted to ice chips or sips of water - although the study can't prove that eating caused deliveries to happen sooner.

The practice of limiting food during labor goes back a study in the 1940s in which women who delivered under general anesthesia were at risk of inhaling their stomach contents and choking in it, writes senior author, Dr. Vincenzo Berghella, of Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia, and his colleagues in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

“We really don’t know how much if anything people can eat or drink in labor," said Berghella,.

Whether women can have more than water or ice chips as they labor to give birth is a common discussion among healthcare providers, he told Reuters Health.

General anesthesia is not commonly used during delivery these days, but the old guidelines are still in use.

For the new study, the researchers compiled data from randomized controlled trials that compared the labor outcomes of women who were allowed to eat only ice chips or water and those who were allowed to eat or drink a bit more.

For example, one study allowed women to drink a mixture of honey and date syrup. Another study allowed all types of food and drinks. A few others allowed women to drink liquids with carbohydrates.

Overall, the researchers analyzed 10 trials that included 3,982 women in labor. All were only delivering one child - not twins or triplets - and were not at risk for cesarean delivery.

The women with the less restrictive diets were not at increased risk for other complications, including vomiting or choking, during the use of general anesthesia.

And women who were allowed to eat and drink more than the traditional ice chips and water had labors that were shorter, by an average of 16 minutes, compared to women with the more restrictive diets.

Speaking from experience, 16 minutes less of labor pains is a real bonus. How does adding more liquid or food during delivery help reduce the time before delivery? The researchers presented some ideas.

"If we’re well hydrated and have adequate carbohydrate in our body, our muscles work better," said Berghella. A woman's uterus is largely made of muscle.

Another of his studies, which found women who received more fluid than normal delivered faster than other women, reinforces the finding.

Berghella said it's still common practice for women with uncomplicated births to be restricted to water or ice chips during labor.

"The evidence from well-done studies is they can have more than that," he said.

Do women really want to eat much during labor? Probably not, there’s a lot going on in the body as labor progresses.  But more liquids and some light carbohydrates during the early part of labor may be welcomed – especially if they shorten the time between labor and when baby enters the world.

Story source: Andrew M. Seaman, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-pregnancy-labor-food-idUSKBN15O2ZR

 

Your Baby

Higher ADHD Risks Linked to Premature Births

2:00

The risk that a child will have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is relatively low among the general population. However, a new study suggests that the more premature a baby is when born; the risk for ADHD increases significantly.

Finnish researchers led by Dr. Minna Sucksdorff of the University of Turku compared more than 10,000 children with ADHD against more than 38,000 children without ADHD but similar in terms of gender, birth date and place of birth.

The researchers used birth medical records to see how far along in the pregnancy the mother was when the child was born. They also looked at whether the children were underweight or overweight for what is expected at that gestational age.

The study results showed that the risk of ADHD increased for each week earlier that a child was born. A full-term pregnancy is considered to be 40 weeks.

The odds of children with ADHD were 10 times greater when they were born during the 23rd to 24th week of pregnancy. Children born between the 27th and 33rd week of pregnancy were twice as likely to have ADHD compared to those without ADHD.

Other factors that affect gestational age and ADHD were also taken in account such as the mother’s age and whether she smoked or used drugs or alcohol. After these considerations, the findings remained the same.

In regards to birth weight, researchers found that infants born at very low or very high weight percentages were also at a higher risk for ADHD.

These findings imply that the pathways in the fetal brain may develop differently in children who are not adequately nourished, or are over-nourished, in the womb, or once a child is delivered prematurely, said Dr. Glen Elliott, chief psychiatrist and medical director of Children's Health Council in Palo Alto, Calif.

However, he added, this type of study cannot show that premature birth or growth rate in the womb actually causes ADHD. Symptoms of the common brain disorder include inattention, impulsive behavior and hyperactivity, which can affect a child's ability to learn and make friends.

Most early cesarean births happen because a mother and / or her infant are in distress and surgery is needed to protect one or the other or both of their health. Planned cesareans are typically scheduled close to the original due date and are unlikely to be associated to ADHD risk. However, the findings may give doctors something to consider when making a decision about cesarean birth.

"Since both gestational weight and gestational age have marked effects, clinicians may face difficult choices if a fetus is not thriving in the womb at an early gestational age," Elliott said. "Does one deliver the child early to enhance nutrition or delay to minimize the effects of premature delivery?"

The risk is still low overall that a child will have ADHD, and these findings are based on a child's relative risk of having the condition compared to others, Elliott added. The study suggests that the chance for ADHD appears to be greatest among the very premature babies.

The findings were published in the August 24th online edition of  the journal Pediatrics.

Source: Tara Haelle, http://www.webmd.com/baby/news/20150824/adhd-risk-rises-for-each-week-a-preemie-is-born-early

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