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Your Baby

Good News! More Infants Placed in Car Seats Correctly

2:00

More parents and caregivers are getting the message and placing their infants and toddlers in car safety seats correctly, according to new research.

For years, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has aggressively urged parents and caregivers to put their children in rear-facing car seats until they are at least two years old. The AAP’s education policy seems to be paying off.

The study found that infants placed in rear-facing car seats increased from 84% in 2009 to 91% in 2015. The percentage of toddlers aged 12-17 months being placed in rear-facing car seats also increased dramatically from 12% to 61% during the same time period.

"This study shows that child passenger safety education has been a success in making sure young children are positioned correctly in the car, but there is still room for improvement," Dr. Joseph O'Neil, medical director of the Automotive Safety Program at Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University Health, said in a press release.

The researchers also found that the use of booster-seat use decreased from 72% to 65% for older kids from 4 to 7 years old during that time.

The study findings suggest educational programs to improve child passenger safety could focus on the gaps identified by the study, including the recommendation to keep children rear-facing in safety seats through age 24 months, to use booster seats through age 8, and the recommendation that children sit in the back seat through age 13.

Safercar.org has a video and step-by-step instructions on how to properly install a rear-facing car seat for baby’s safety.

AAP also offers “Tips for Parents,” in video and written media, for shopping for car seats.

The study will be presented today at the AAP’s National Conference & Exhibition in Chicago.

This research is good news for children! Proper use of rear –facing car seats and booster seats are the first line of defense in keeping children safer when they’re riding in your car.

Story source: Amy Wallace, https://www.upi.com/Health_News/2017/09/14/Study-shows-more-infants-toddlers-placed-in-car-seats-correctly/9381505417976/

Your Baby

Weight Gain During Pregnancy

2.00 to read

Every pregnant woman wonders how much weight she could gain during pregnancy. For some women, being pregnant is an open invitation to eat whatever and whenever they like, while other woman worry what the weight gain will do to their figure. There is no absolute law about weight gain during pregnancy, but there are set of guidelines that can help you.

Weight gain should be based on your pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI.) Your health and your baby’s health also play a role in how much weight you should gain.

Here’s a list of suggested pregnancy weigh gain related to a healthy woman’s BMI.

  • Underweight (BMI less than 18.5) – 28 to 40 pounds
  • Normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9) – 25 to 35 pounds
  • Overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9) – 15 to 25 pounds
  • Obese (BMI 30 or more) – 11 to 20 pounds

Multiples are a different story. If you are carrying twins or other multiples you’re likely going to need to gain more than average weight. Your health care provider can help you determine what is right for you. Here are the recommended weight gain options.

  • Normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9) – 37 to 54 pounds
  • Overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9) – 31 to 50 pounds
  • Obese (BMI 30 or more) – 25 to 42 pounds

If you are overweight when you become pregnant, pregnancy increases the risk of various complications including diabetes and high blood pressure. Of course, a certain amount of weight gain is normal, but too much adds to the possibility of dangerous health risks for the woman and the child.

Remember that if you gain more than the recommended amount during pregnancy and you don't lose the weight after the baby is born, the excess pounds increase your lifelong health risks. Gaining too much weight during pregnancy can also increase your baby's risk of health problems at birth and childhood obesity.

If you're underweight, it's essential to gain a reasonable amount of weight while you're pregnant. Without the extra weight, your baby might be born earlier or smaller than expected.

Calculating your BMI is not difficult; you just need to know your height and weight. There are several online BMI calculators that will do the math for you. Your healthcare provider should also have a BMI chart that can show you your BMI.

So, how is the extra weight used by your body when your pregnant? Here’s a simple list to help you follow a normal weight gain.

  • Baby: 7 to 8 pounds
  • Larger breasts: 2 pounds
  • Larger uterus: 2 pounds
  • Placenta: 1 1/2 pounds
  • Amniotic fluid: 2 pounds
  • Increased blood volume: 3 to 4 pounds
  • Increased fluid volume: 3 to 4 pounds
  •  Fat stores: 6 to 8 pounds

During your first trimester, you probably won’t gain much weight. Steady weight gain is more important in the second and third trimesters, especially if you begin at a normal weight or are underweight.

Exercise is also important during pregnancy. Even a moderate amount of exercise will help keep your body strong as the extra pressure builds while you are carrying.

As your pregnancy develops, more than likely you’re appetite will increase. That’s not a bad thing. Just fill those hunger pains with healthy food choices!

Source: http://www.mayoclinic.org/pregnancy-weight-gain/art-20044360

 

 

Your Baby

Preventing Peanut Allergies with Peanuts

1:45

As the number of U.S. children with peanut allergies continues to grow, researchers are looking for ways to help these youngsters overcome or manage their allergy better.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is now endorsing a recommendation that infants at high risk of peanut allergies be given foods containing peanuts before their first birthday.

How can you tell if your infant might be at risk for developing a peanut allergy?  Children are considered at high risk if they've had a previous allergic reaction to eggs or experienced a severe eczema skin rash. Allergy tests are recommended before exposing at-risk infants to peanut-containing foods.

An earlier published allergy study found that exposure to peanuts in infancy seemed to help build tolerance -- contrary to conventional thinking that peanuts should be avoided until children are older.

Here’s how the study was conducted.  Researchers in Britain followed 640 babies, 4 months to 11 months old, who were considered at high risk of developing peanut allergies. One group avoided peanuts; the others ate a small amount of peanut protein or peanut butter every week. After five years, the group that ate peanut products had 81 percent fewer peanut allergies than the group that didn't.

"There is now scientific evidence," the AAP says, "that health care providers should recommend introducing peanut-containing products into the diets of 'high-risk' infants early on in life (between 4 and 11 months of age) in countries where peanut allergy is prevalent because delaying the introduction of peanut can be associated with an increased risk of peanut allergy."

The advice comes in a consensus statement that the American Academy of Pediatrics helped prepare and endorsed in June along with the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and major allergy groups from Canada, Europe, Japan and elsewhere. The recommendations are meant to serve as interim guidance until more extensive guidelines can be prepared for release next year, the consensus statement said.

While getting the exact percentage of children with peanut allergies is difficult, peanut allergy is one of the most common food allergies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that four out of ten children suffer from a food allergy. It also notes that hospitalizations resulting from severe attacks have been increasing.

Severe cases can cause an allergic child to experience anaphylactic shock, a potentially life-threatening reaction that disrupts breathing and causes a precipitous drop in blood pressure.

Parents who are interested in the idea of treating peanut allergies with peanuts should not attempt to do this themselves. Children, particularly infants, should only be treated under the care of their pediatrician or pediatric allergist.

The AAP’s recommendation on treating peanut allergies with small doses of peanut protein will be published in the August 31 edition of the journal Pediatrics.

Source: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/new-advice-for-parents-on-peanut-allergies/

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db10.htm

Your Baby

Baby's Healthy Dental Habits Begin at Birth!

1:45

Did you know that your baby’s teeth are at risk for decay as soon as they first appear?  Typically, a baby’s first tooth starts pushing up through the gums around 6 months of age. You can actually help prevent tooth decay by beginning an oral hygiene routine as early as the first few days after birth. Start by cleaning your baby’s mouth by wiping the gums with a clean gauze pad. This helps removes plaque that can harm erupting teeth. When your child's teeth begin to come in, brush them gently with a child's size toothbrush and a small amount of fluoride toothpaste, about the size of a grain of rice.

Tooth decay in infants and toddlers is often referred to as Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. It most often occurs in the upper front teeth, but other teeth may also be affected. In some cases, infants and toddlers experience decay so severe that their teeth cannot be saved and need to be removed.

Use only formula or breast-milk if bottle-feeding. An infant should finish their bottle before naptime or bedtime.

Most children will have a full set of 20 baby teeth by the time they are 3-years-old. As your child grows, their jaws also grow, making room for their permanent teeth.

Here are some cleaning tips to help prevent cavity formation and to help develop good oral hygiene at an early age.

·      Begin cleaning your baby’s mouth during the first few days after birth by wiping the gums with a clean, moist gauze pad or washcloth. As soon as teeth appear, decay can occur.

·      For children younger than 3 years, caregivers should begin brushing children’s teeth as soon as they begin to come into the mouth. Brush teeth thoroughly twice per day (morning and night) or as directed by a dentist or physician. Supervise children’s brushing to ensure that they use of the appropriate amount of toothpaste.

·      As children get a little older, increase the amount of toothpaste. For children 3 to 6 years of age, use a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste. Continue to make sure your child’s teeth are brushed twice a day and remind them not to swallow the toothpaste.

·      Once your child has two teeth that touch – you can teach them how to gently floss to remove any food that might get stuck between the teeth.

Teething is one of the first rituals of life. As your little one’s teeth begin to appear he or she may become fussy, have trouble sleeping and is irritable. Infants sometimes lose their appetite or drool more than usual. Diarrhea, rashes and a fever are not normal symptoms for a teething baby. If your infant has a fever or diarrhea while teething or continues to be cranky and uncomfortable, call your physician.

When should you plan on your baby’s first dental appointment? As soon as the first tooth appears! The American Dental Association (ADA) recommends that the first dental visit take place within six months after the first tooth appears, but no later than a child’s first birthday. Don’t wait for them to start school or until there's an emergency. Get your child comfortable today with good mouth healthy habits.

During the dental visit you can expect the dentist to:

•       Inspect for oral injuries, cavities or other problems.

•       Let you know if your child is at risk of developing tooth decay.

•       Clean your child’s teeth and provide tips for daily care.

•       Discuss teething, pacifier use, or finger/thumb-sucking habits.

•       Discuss treatment, if needed, and schedule the next check-up.

As you can see, the road to healthy teeth starts early! Starting good oral hygiene habits as soon as your baby’s first tooth comes in can help prevent tooth decay later and spot any jaw or alignment issues before they become a problem.

Story source: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/babies-and-kids/healthy-habits/

Your Baby

Skip Hop recalls 130,000 Nightlight Soothers

1:45

Skip Hop makes adorable little nightlights that are often placed in infants and children’s bedrooms to help lull them to sleep. Two models of the popular nightlights are being recalled due to shock hazard.

This recall involves 130,000 of Skip Hop’s Moonlight & Melodies owl and elephant nightlight soothers that play melodies or nature sounds and project images. They have a USB wall power adapter and cord. The white and gray owl soothers measure about 5.5 by 4.5 by 6 inches. The white elephant soother measures about 7 x 4.2 x 5.7 inches. The soothers have a sound speaker on each side and operation buttons at the top or the back. The Skip Hop logo is on the underside of the soother.

Skip Hop is aware of reports that the power adapter can break, including one electrical shock incident.

Consumers should immediately stop using the recalled nightlight soothers and contact Skip Hop for instructions on returning the USB wall power adapter with a prepaid shipping label and receive a free repair kit which includes a free USB wall adapter.

The Skip Hop products were sold at Babies R Us, Buy Buy Baby, Target and other retailers nationwide and online at Skiphop.com and Amazon.com from July 2016 through August 2017 for approximately $40.

Consumers can contact Skip Hop toll-free at 888-282-4674 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. ET Monday through Friday, email at recall@skiphop.com or online at www.skiphop.com and click on Product Recalls at the bottom of the page for more information.

Story source: https://www.cpsc.gov/Recalls/2017/Skip-Hop-Recalls-Nightlight-Soothers#

Your Baby

Should You Let Your Baby Cry Itself to Sleep?

1:30

As any parent of an infant will tell you- sleep is a precious thing. So, what’s the best way to get your baby to sleep through the night? There are many ways to help baby drop off to dreamland, but two of the most common had researchers wondering if there might be long-term harm resulting from these techniques.

Turns out, they was nothing to worry about.

The study tested two methods; graduated extinction and bedtime fading.

Graduated extinction is more commonly known as controlled-crying or letting baby cry his or herself to sleep while learning how to self-soothe without parental involvement

Bedtime fading is keeping baby awake longer to help them drop of more quickly.

Researchers discovered that both techniques work and neither had any long-term negative effects.

The graduated extinction approach also showed babies waking up fewer times during the night.

Parents worry about the controlled-crying method, in particular, according to study leader Michael Gradisar, a clinical psychologist at Flinders University, in Adelaide, Australia.

With that technique, parents resist the urge to immediately respond to their baby’s nighttime cries, so he or she can learn to self-soothe. Some parents worry that will damage their baby emotionally, and possibly cause "attachment" problems or other issues in the long run, Gradisar explained.

But, he said, his team found no evidence that was the case.

For the study, the researchers randomly assigned parents of 43 babies to one of three groups: one that started practicing controlled crying; one that took up bedtime fading; and a third, "control" group that was just given information on healthy sleep.

The babies ranged in age from 6 months to 16 months. All had a "sleep problem," according to their parents.

Parents in the controlled-crying group were given a basic plan: When their baby woke up crying during the night, they had to wait a couple of minutes before responding. They could then go comfort, but not pick up, the baby.

Over time, parents gradually let their baby cry for longer periods before responding.

Bedtime fading is a "gentler" approach, according to Gradisar: The aim is to help babies fall asleep more quickly by putting them down later.

Parents in that study group were told to delay their baby's bedtime for a few nights -- to 7:15 p.m. instead of 7 p.m., for instance. If the baby was still having trouble falling asleep, bedtime could be pushed back another 15 minutes.

After three months, the researchers found, babies in both sleep-training groups were falling asleep faster when their parents put them down -- between 10 and 13 minutes faster, on average. On the other hand, there was little change in the control group.

A year after the study's start, children in the three groups had similar rates of behavioral and emotional issues. They were also similar in their "attachment" to their parents -- which was gauged during standard tests at the research center.

Experts say that infants are usually able to sleep longer through the night, as they get a little older. By the age of 6 months, 80 percent of infants sleep all night. By 9 months, about 90 percent do.

If your baby doesn’t seem to be able to sleep through the night by those ages, contact your pediatrician to see if your little one may have a problem that needs checking out.

Story source: Amy Norton, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/news/20160524/what-really-works-to-help-baby-sleep

 

Your Baby

Air Mattresses Can Be Fatal for Infants

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Researchers are sending out a warning to parents that while air mattresses are convenient, portable, and relatively inexpensive, they can also be deadly for babies.

There were 108 infant deaths involving air mattresses reported in 24 states between 2004 and 2015, according to the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System. But the researchers said such deaths are probably underreported. There's no specific box to check to mark a death as related to an air mattress, the study authors explained.

"Even when fully inflated, air mattresses can mold to the infant's face and obstruct the airway by forming an occlusive seal," wrote researchers Jennifer Doering, from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and Trina Salm Ward, from the University of Georgia.

"The risk increases when air mattresses leak during use. Under-inflation was a factor in some of the infant deaths reviewed," they added.

Air mattresses seldom provide a warning label about use with infants. The team checked policy statements from 12 organizations -- including federal agencies and health, consumer and parent groups -- and found that only one mentioned the hazard posed to infants by air mattresses.

Many parents simply do not connect air mattresses with infant deaths. Doering and Ward called for improved data collection and for more public health officials to spread the word about the dangers of using air mattresses for babies to sleep on.

The study was published recently in the American Journal of Public Health.

Story source: Robert Preidt, http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20170602/air-mattresses-linked-to-more-than-100-infant-deaths

Your Baby

Singing to Baby in the Womb Decreases Crying After Birth

2:00

There is no shortage of advice for mothers-to-be about what to do once baby arrives. But, there’s something you can do before baby is born to help bring a calmer child into the world. The key is singing to baby while he or she is still in utero, according to a new study.

Researchers divided about 170 pregnant women into two groups; one group sang lullabies in the months immediately before and after birth. The other group did not sing to their baby at all.

They found that babies from the singing group generally cried 18.5 per cent of the time compared to 28.2 per cent of the time in the group who were not sung to.

Meanwhile for those with colic - excessive or frequent crying where there is no ill health - the babies who had enjoyed prenatal lullabies tended to cry for about a quarter of the time.

How well moms and babies were able to bond was also measured after birth. Researchers used a scientific measurement called the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale while they also recorded hours of baby sleep, crying incidences and bouts of colic.

In the weeks following birth, the postnatal bonding measurement was a little higher among the singers - 1.96 against 1.28 on the scale.

The authors concluded that: "Mothers singing lullabies could improve maternal-infant bonding. It could also have positive effects on neonatal behavior and maternal stress.”

Babies cry for many reasons. It’s how they communicate hunger, pain, fear, the need to sleep and more.

The most common reason for crying is hunger. Once you recognize the signs of hunger, you can feed before they start. Some signs to watch for are lip smacking, fussiness, putting their hands to their mouths and pushing their heads into your hand or shoulder.

Colic (tummy troubles) is also a common cause of crying. This may come after feeding, so burping the baby is often helpful. If your baby has colic a lot be sure to talk to your pediatrician.

A dirty diaper will trigger crying. This is an easy one to control; check and change often.

Babies need a lot of sleep. Instead of nodding off easily, babies may fuss and cry – especially when they're overtired.

Creating a quiet and warm (but not too warm or hot) room helps, plus rocking baby will often soothe and send them to dreamland. Also, make sure that their clothing is soft. Scratchy blankets or clothes can irritate their tender skin.

And of course, babies cry when they don’t feel well. Discuss what symptoms to look for and the best way to take your little one’s temperature with your pediatrician.

Sometimes, baby just cry and we’re not really sure why, after all, they can’t tell us. They may just want to be held and cuddled. We all like that.

The research was undertaken by the University of Milan and published in the journal Women and Birth.

Story sources: Henry Bodkin, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/03/07/sing-bump-lullabies-babies-womb-decreases-crying/

https://www.babycenter.com/0_12-reasons-babies-cry-and-how-to-soothe-them_9790.bc

 

Your Baby

Why Do Babies Eyes Change Color?

1:30

Close to the top of questions many parent’s have about their newborn is what color will my baby’s eyes be?

It’ll take a while before you actually know your baby’s true eye color. That’s because eye color is a genetic trait that depends on several factors. While your baby may have gray or blue eyes at birth, his or her eyes may eventually be brown, blue, green, hazel, gray, violet or even a combination of colors. 

Parents' genes can mix and match in many different ways. The influences from each parent aren't known until after the baby is born. Eye color traits also include grandparents. A brown-eyed mother and father can have a child with blue eyes if there are blue eyes in his or her genetic history.

The colored part of the eye is called the iris, which has pigmentation that determines our eye color.

Human eye color originates with three genes, two of which are well understood. These genes account for the most common colors — green, brown, and blue.

Most babies are born with blue or gray eyes that can darken in their first three years.

Iris color, just like hair and skin color, depends on a protein called melanin. We have specialized cells in our bodies called melanocytes whose job it is to go around secreting melanin where it’s needed, including in the iris. When your baby is born his eyes will be gray or blue since melanocytes respond to light and he has spent his whole life in the dark.

Over time, if melanocytes only secrete a little melanin, your baby will have blue eyes. If they secrete a bit more, his eyes will look green or hazel. When melanocytes get really busy, eyes look brown (the most common eye color), and in some cases they may appear very dark indeed. Because it takes about a year for melanocytes to finish their work it can be a dicey business calling eye color before the baby’s first birthday. The color change does slow down some after the first 6 months of life, but there can be plenty of change left at that point.

We used to think of brown being "dominant" and blue being "recessive." But modern science has shown that eye color is not at all that simple.

Children can have completely different eye colors than either of their parents. But if both parents have brown eyes, it's most likely that their children also will have brown eyes.

The darker colors tend to dominate, so brown typically wins out over green, and green tends to win out over blue.

Eye color is one of those interesting things that pique our curiosity, but no matter what color your baby’s eyes end up being; they’ll be beautiful because they belong to your special little one!

Story sources: David L Hill MD,FAAP,  https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/Pages/Newborn-Eye-Color.aspx

Burt Dubow, OD, http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/eye-color.htm

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