Is your child up-to-date on his or her immunizations for the new school year?
Each state has its own set of immunization requirements, but there are a few that are found in nearly all states. Make sure you know which are required for your child’s school.
The typical list includes:
DTaP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis)
· Most children have five dosages by the time they start school, including one after their fourth birthday
· Remember that children also need a tetanus booster when they are around 11 to 12 years old
· The Tdap vaccine (Boostrix or Adacel) is recommended for teens and adults to protect them from pertussis in 2006 and replaces the previous Td vaccine that only worked against tetanus and diphtheria
MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella)
· Two doses of MMR are usually required by school entry. In the past, the second dose was given when a child was either 4 to 6 years old or 12 years old. Now, it is usually given earlier, but some older children may not have gotten two doses yet.
· Having two doses of MMR is important in this age of measles outbreaks.
· Most children have four or five dosages by the time they start school, including one after their fourth birthday.
Varivax (Varicella, or the Chickenpox vaccine)
· Your older child will need the chickenpox shot if he has not already had chickenpox in the past. Most toddlers young receive it when they are 12 to 18 months old. Although younger children used to be given just one dose, it is now required that kids get a chickenpox booster shot when they are 4 to 6 years old. Older kids should get their booster at their next well child visit or as soon as they can so that they don't get chickenpox.
· A series of three shots that is now started in infancy. Older children are usually caught up by 12 years of age if they haven't received this vaccine yet.
· A set of two shots for children over 12 months years of age. All infants and toddlers are now getting this shot as a part of the routine childhood immunization schedule, but there is currently no plan for routine catch-up immunization of all unimmunized 2- to 18-year-old children, unless they live in a high-risk area with an existing hepatitis A immunization program or if the kids are themselves high risk. Kids are high risk for example, if they travel to developing countries, abuse drugs, have clotting-factor disorders, or chronic liver disease, etc.
· Hepatitis A vaccine is required to attend preschool in many parts of the United States.
· While required for school entry, children do not usually receive this shot after they are five years of age, so children who have missed this shot don't usually need to get caught up before school starts if they are older than 5 years old.
· A vaccine that can help to prevent infections by the pneumococcal bacteria, which is a common cause of blood infections, meningitis and ear infections in children.
· Prevnar is typically given between the ages of two months and five years, and isn't approved for older kids, so your older child wouldn't need this shot if he didn't get it when he was younger. It is often required to attend preschool though.
· A newer version of Prevnar, which can provide coverage against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacteria, is approved and replaces the older version (Prevnar 7) in 2010, which means that many older children in preschool may need another dose of Prevnar 13, even if they finished the Prevnar 7 series.
· Another version of this vaccine is available for certain older high-risk children though, including kids with immune system problems, although that wouldn't be required for school.
· Menactra and Menveo, the newest versions of the meningococcal vaccine, is now recommended for children who are 11 to 12 years old, with a booster dose when they are 15 to 18 years old.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all school age children stay up-to-date on all their immunizations.
As well as the vaccines recommended above, AAP includes a few others in its 2016 list. They include:
· Administer influenza vaccine annually to all children beginning at age 6 months. For most healthy, non-pregnant persons aged 2 through 49 years, either LAIV or IIV may be used. However, LAIV should NOT be administered to some persons, including 1) persons who have experienced severe allergic reactions to LAIV, any of its components, or to a previous dose of any other influenza vaccine; 2) children 2 through 17 years receiving aspirin or aspirin-containing products; 3) persons who are allergic to eggs; 4) pregnant women; 5) immunosuppressed persons; 6) children 2 through 4 years of age with asthma or who had wheezing in the past 12 months; or 7) persons who have taken influenza antiviral medications in the previous 48 hours.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
· Administer a 3-dose series of HPV vaccine on a schedule of 0, 1-2, and 6 months to all adolescents aged 11 through 12 years. 9vHPV, 4vHPV or 2vHPV may be used for females, and only 9vHPV or 4vHPV may be used for males.
· The vaccine series may be started at age 9 years,
· Administer the second dose 1 to 2 months after the first dose (minimum interval of 4 weeks), administer the third dose 16 weeks after the second dose (minimum interval of 12 weeks) and 24 weeks after the first dose.
· Administer HPV vaccine beginning at age 9 years to children and youth with any history of sexual abuse or assault who have not initiated or completed the 3-dose series.
Many states have added an “opt out” choice for parents on some vaccines but not all. For the health and safety of all children, the AAP recommends that parents follow each state’s immunizations requirements and not opt out unless there is a medical necessity.
Story sources: Vincent Iannelli, MD, https://www.verywell.com/school-immunization-requirements-2633240